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L.B.S. National Academy of Administration 

MUSSOORIE 

LIBRARY 


ST^fc?7 WWT 
Accession No. 
Rn 

Class No. 


1818 


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MACAULAY SQUARE. 


WORTH — FRONT ELEVATION 



LONDON COUNTY COUNCIL 


LONDON 

HOUSING 



The County Hall, 

London, S.E.l 
May, 1937 


(i. H. GATKR. 

Clerk of the Council 


iT'UHriHEl) I5Y THE LONDON COUNTY COUNCiL, 
may be piirdiasf.*(l, either diretrtly or through any booksi'ller, from 
P. s. kin(t and sox, limited, u, Great Smith street, Vktokia Street, Westmivsteu, s.W.l, 
Agents for the sale of the VnblicntUms of the fmnlon Conntg Council. 

1937 


No. 8272 Price 3s. 6cl. 




V 


HOUSING AND PUBLIC HEALTH COMMITTEE 

{1st Januanj, 1937) 


Chairman Lewis Siekik, M.P. 

Vict'-Chairman ... ... C. W. Gibson 


Other ^J embers of the Council 


Bennett. Wili.iam 
Rot.ton, Mrs. I. M. 
COI’POCK, B. 

Currie, G. W. 

Dence, E. M., LL.D. 
Ganeey, Mrs. C. S., J.l*. 
Gii.eison, Dr. J. A. 
Hayes, G. E. 

Hill, Percy 


I.EviTA, Lieut.-C'olonel Sir Cecil, 

C.B.E.. K.C.V.O.. D.L., J.P. 

M.arsden-Smedi.ey. Basil 
Martin, IhiwARi) P. 

Sayle, Miss Amy, M.B.E.. M.A. 
.Selley, H. B., .J.P., M.P. 

Stamp, A. Reginald 

Wood, E. W. H. 


Co-opted Members 

Aberdeen, The Most Hon. the Marque.s.s of. O.B.E., L.L.. .I.P. 
Denby, Miss Elizabeth 
Halse, F. T., D.L., J.P. 

Reiss, ('aptai.n R. L. 



VI 


(Airmen of the Housing and Public Health Committee, 1889-1987 

1889-92 Earl Compton, M.P. (Marquess of North- 
ampton) 

1892-98 R. M. Beachgroft 
1898-94 A. L. Leon 

1894- 95 Rev, C, Fleming Williams 

1895- 96 W. Wallace Bruce 

1896- 97 A, L. Leon 

1897- 98 Alfred Smith 

1898- 99 W. Wallace Bruce 

1899- 1900 Sir John Dickson-Poynder, Bt., M.P. 

(Lord Islington) 

1900- 02 D. S. Waterlow 

1902-08 Sir William J. Collins, M.D, 

1908-04 Earl Carrington (Marquess of Lincoln- 
shire) 

1904- 05 W. Wallace Bruce 

1905- 06 J, E, Sears, M.P. 

1906- 07 W, Wallace Bruce 

1907- 08 Sir W’’illiam Lancaster 

1908- 09 The Hon. Walter Guinness, M.P. 

1909- 10 W. Raymond Greene, M.P, 

1910- 11 Lieut.-Col. a. G. Boscawen, M.P. 

1911- 12 Sir Arthur Griffith-Boscawen, M.P., 

J. C. Hill, and G. K. Naylor 

1912- 18 G. K, Naylor and Bernard Holland, C.B. 

1918- 17 Bernard Holland, C.B. 

1917-19 H. DE R. Walker 

1919- 20 Bernard Holland, C.B. 

1920- 22 Lieut.-Col. F. E. Fremantle, F.R.C.P., 

F.R.C.S., D.P.H., M.P. 

1922-28 Lieut.-Col. Sir Cecil Levita, C.B.E., K.C.V.O., 
D.L., J.P. 

1928-81 E. M. Dence, LL.D. 

1981-84 H. R. Selley, J.P., M.P. 

1984- Lewis Silkin, M.P. 

iPrior to Marehj 1984, the Committee was known variously as the 
the Working Classes Conunittee, the Public He^th and 
ittee, and the Housing Cohunittee. 



FOREWORD 


This volume, unlike its predecessor “ Housing, 1928-30,” is more 
than a supplemental volume. It attempts to give some account 
of the housing activities of public authorities in London from the 
beginning, although most of it is necessarily devoted to the London 
County Council and the work of recent years. Nor is it any longer 
possible to set forth in the body of the volume any particulars, 
however brief, of all schemes set on foot under the Acts of 1980 and 
1935. A selection had to be made, and those schemes have been 
chosen for detailed treatment, by illustration and letterpress, which 
might arouse interest by their magnitude, position or other special 
features. A complete enumeration of schemes is, however, given in 
the Appendix. 

The work of preparation has been divided among several branches 
of the Council’s service, and I desire to express my indebtedness for 
assistance rendered by officers of the Valuer’s, Architect’s, Comp- 
troller’s and Medical Officer’s Departments of the Council. I have 
also to acknowledge specially the assistance given by the City of 
London Corporation, who supplied the letterpress for Chapter VIII, 
and by several of the Metropolitan Borough Councils and Housing 
Associations who supplied material for the compilation of Chapters 
IX and X. The expert advice of officers in the printing section of 
the Supplies Department has also been, as always, extremely valuable. 


G. H. GATER, 

Clerk of the Council 



vill 




CONTENTS 

PAGE 

Chapter 

I. 

General review of the earlier 

HOUSING developments 

1 

Chapter 

II. 

General review of the post-war 

HOUSING DEVELOPMENTS 

6 

Chapter 

III. 

Slum clearance ... 

18 

Chapter 

IV. 

Redevelopment areas 

26 

Chapter 

V. 

Overcrowding 

80 

Chapter 

VI. 

Development of estates by the erection 

OF BLOCK DWELLINGS ... 

38 

Chapter 

VII, 

Development of cottage estates 

117 

Chapter 

VIII. 

City of London Corporation 

180 

Chapter 

IX. 

Metropolitan borough councils 

184 

Chapter 

X. 

Housing associations 

200 

Chapter 

XI. 

Council’s dwellings — letting and 

MANAGEMENT 

219 

Chapter 

XII. 

Housing finance 

231 

Chapter 

XIII. 

Transport in relation to housing ... 

248 

Appendix 

— Summary of Housing Act, 1986 

251 


Statistics 

258 


Handmap 

Attention is directed to the map enclosed in the pocket on the 
inside of the back cover. This diagram map of Greater London shows 
the situation of all the Council’s housing estates. 



IX 


ILLUSTRATIONS 

Macaulay-square, Wandsworth Frontispiece 

CHAPTER III. SLUM CLEARANCE page 

Typical insanitary houses, etc 14, 15, 16, 18, 19 

CHAPTER IV. REDEVELOPMENT AREAS 

Aerial view of district affected by proposed area in 

Bethnal Green inset between 28 and 29 

CHAPTER V. OVERCROWDING 

Diagram indicating dates from which the statutory 

overcrowding provisions operate 33 

CHAPTER VI. DEVELOPMENT OF ESTATES BY THE 
ERECTION OF BLOCK DWELLINGS 


1934 TYPES OF PLANNING 40, 41 

New TYPES OF plan — T ypical Unit plan 42, 43 

Axonometric view of a three- room dwelling , . . 44 

Lay-out and arrangement of new type housing blocks 45 

Tabard-street, Minto-street and Law-street areas — 

Before clearance ... ... 50 

Tabard Garden Estate — L ay-out 51 

Open space ... ... ... ... ... 52 

Children’s playground ... ... ... ... 53 

Tabard-street area — V iew, before clearance, of Wick- 

ham-place ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 54 

View, before clearance, of Fox’s Buildings ... 54 

China-walk Estate — L ay-out 59 

Wedgwood House 57 

Quadrangle, Wedgwood House ... ... ... 57 

Wedgwood House, view through quadrangle ... 61 

China- WALK area — ^B efore clearance 58 

Views, before clearance, of Karl-place 60 

Wyndham-road area — B efore clearance 62 

View, before clearance, of 46, Wyndham-road ... 04 

View, before clearance, of Mayhew’s Buildings... 04 



Xll 


PAGE 

Becontree — L ay-out 158 

Development in Barking area inset between 158 and 159 

Nos. 321 to 347, Hedgemans-road 159 

Junction of Spurling-road and Ivyhouse-road . . . 160 

Three-storey flats, Castle-gardens ... ... 161 

Leasham-road, Lodge-avenue ... ... ... 162 

Larger type houses in Gale-street ... ... 163 

Junction of Lodge-avenue and Fitzstephen-road 163 

Larger type houses at junction of Gale-street and 

Wykeham-avenue ... ... ... ... 164 

Watling Estate — L ay-out ... ... inset between 164 and 165 

Silkstrcarn-road ... ... ... ... ... 165 

St. Helier Estate — L ay-out ... inset between 166 and 167 

Nos. 5 to 39, St. Helier-avenue — Three-and four- 

room flats ... ... ... ... ... 167 

Westminster-road ... ... ... ... ... 168 

Evesham-green ... ... ... ... ... 169 

Abbotsbury-road ... ... ... ... ... 170 

St. Helier-avenue ... ... ... ... ... 171 

Mottingham Estate — L ay-out 174 

Offenham-road 172 

Dunkery-road ... ... ... ... ... 173 

Thornhill Estate — L ay-out 176 

Han WELL Estate — L ay-out 177 

Kenmore Park Estate — L ay-out 178 

CHAPTER VIII. CITY OF LONDON CORPORATION 
Windsor House, Shoreditch 181 

CHAPTER IX, METROPOLITAN BOROUGH COUNCILS 

St. John’s Estate, Battersea 185, 186 

Powell House, Hackney 188 

Middle Park Estate, Woolwich 191, 192 

Houses in Vauban-street area, Bermondsey ... 193 

Bethel-place area, Bermondsey 194 

Surrey House, Rotherhithe-street, Bermondsey ... 195 

Block 3, Me akin Estate 195 

Halley House, Shoreditch 196 

Kennistoun House, St. Pancras 197 



Xlll 


PAGE 

Magdalen Park Estate, Wandsworth 198 

Bellamy House, Wandsworth 198 

Moreton House, Wandsworth 199 

CHAPTER X. HOUSING ASSOCIATIONS 

Peabody Trust — H ammersmith Estate ... ... 201,202 

Guinness Trust — S tamford Hill Estate 203 

Sutton Dwellings Trust — S utton Way, Kensington . . . 204 

Samuel Lewis Trust — A mhurst-road Estate 205 

Aubrey Trust — O rchard House, Shepherd’s Bush ... 206 

Metropolitan Association for Improving the Dwel- 
lings OF the Industrious Classes — D wellings in 
Pancras-square 208 

Society for Improving the Conditions of the Labouring 

Classes — D wellings erected in 1844 ... ... ... 208 

St. Pancras House Improvement Society Limited — P art 

of Somers Town area before clearance ... ... 209, 210 

St. Mary’s Flats 211 

St. Nicholas House 212 

Four Per Cent. Industrial Dwellings Company — E velyn 

Court, Hackney ... ... ... ... ... ... 213 

Kensington Housing Trust — Q ueens Gate House ... 214 

St. Peter’s House ... ... ... ... ... 215 

Duchy of Cornwall — N ewquay House 217 

CHAPTER XI. COUNCIL’S DWELLINGS— LETTING 
AND MANAGEMENT 

A Tenant’s garden on Roehampton Estate ... 229 




CHAPTER I 


GENERAL REVIEW OF THE EARLIER HOUSING 
DEVELOPMENTS 

Conditions in the nineteenth century 

The housing problem in London is not a new question, althougli 
it is only in comparatively recent times that it has attracted its full 
measure of public attention. 

From the time when London first began to grow too big for the 
City walls and to engulf the surrounding hamlets, the housing 
problem was present. In an Act of Parliament passed in 1593 
(35, Eliz. ; C. 6) it is noted that : — 

“ Great mischiefs daily grow and increase by reason of 
pestering the houses with divers families, harbouring of inmates, 
and converting great houses into several tenements, and the 
erection of new l3uildings in London and Westminster.” 

Again in the reign of Charles T : — 

“ The City was so compassed in and straightened with 
these new buildings that it might prove very dangerous to the 
inhabitants.” 

A very few years were to pass before it was proved exactly how 
dangerous sucti overcrowding and congestion could be, but the Great 
Plague was followed by what may justly be termed the largest clear- 
ance of unfit dwellings in the history of London. In the Great Fire 
of 1666 some 13,200 dwelling-houses, in an area measuring 4-36 
acres and including 400 streets, were destroyed. 

Unfortunately the reconstruction planned by Wren was only 
partially carried out, and the evil began again. Had it proceeded 
at its normal pace the problem would have been serious enough, but 
the expansion of industrial development during the first half of the 
nineteenth century attracted a large population to the metropolis, 
and houses were built rapidly in large numbers and of very inferior 
construction. The lack of efficient means of transport and the absence 
of building laws to regulate the construction of new streets and houses 
resulted, in many instances, in the uncontrolled crowding of the 
largest number of persons into the smallest possible area ; con- 
sequently London grew in haphazard fashion without consideration 
for town planning or the needs of the future. 

Some idea of the conditions throughout the country at this time 
may be gathered from the report by Dr. Southwood Smith to the 
Poor Law Commissioners in 1838. He referred to : — 

‘‘ Quarters inhabited by hundreds of thousands of the 
labouring classes , . . crowding more or less dense in courts 
and alleys and narrow streets almost insusceptible of ventilation, 
in dwellings which themselves were often not fit to be inhabited 
by human beings ; while all around the dwellings the utter 
absence of drainage, the utter omission of scavenging and 
nuisance-prevention, the utter insufficiency of water supply, 
conduced to such accumulations of animal and vegetable refuse, 
and to such pondings of ordurous liquids, as made one universal 
atmosphere of filth and stink/’ 



2 


HOUSING 


Charles Kingsley, in “ Alton Locke,” has also given a description 
of a Bermondsey slum in the middle of the nineteenth century : — 
“ A miserable blind alley, where a dirty gas-lamp just served 
to make darkness visible, and show the patched windows and 
rickety doorways of the crazy houses, whose upper storeys 
were lost in a brooding cloud of fog ; and the pools of stagnant 
water at our feet ; and the huge heap of cinders which filled up 
the waste end of the alley — a dreary, black formless mound on 
which two or three spectral dogs prowled up and down after 
the offal, appearing and vanishing like dark imps in and out of 
the black misty chaos beyond.” 

The earlier leffislation 

These and similar disclosures at last aroused publie feeling, and 
Parliament, though without undue haste, was forced to take action, 
with the result that in 1848 the first Publie Health Act was passed. 

Housing legislation may, however, be said to have properly dated 
from 1851, in which year Lord Shaftesbury induced Parliament to 
pass two Acts, commonly known as Lord Shaftesbury’s Acts — 
namely the Common Lodging Houses Act and the Labouring Classes 
Lodging Houses Act, which secured the inspection and provision of 
lodging houses. 

In 1868 and 1879 Acts (known as Torrens’ Acts) were passed 
to enable individual insanitary houses to be dealt with, and Acts 
of 1875 and 1879 (known as Cross’ Acts) empowered local authorities 
to clear and reconstruct unhealthy areas. A Royal Commission on 
Housing (one of the members of which was the Prince of Wales, 
afterwards King Edward VII) sat in 1884-5 and following its report, 
the Housing of the Working Classes Act, 1885, was passed which 
amended previous legislation dealing with the subject. 

The housing legislation was afterwards extended and consolidated 
by the Housing of the Working Classes Act of 1890. The provisions 
of this Act were far-sighted and well conceived, and they have been 
enshrined in subsequent legislation. The principal powers conferred 
on local authorities were those which enabled them to clear un- 
healthy areas and carry out improvement schemes (Part I) ; tqjdcal 
with individual insanitary houses and small unhealthy areas (Part 
II) and to build new houses for the working classes (Part III). 
Supplementary provisions as regards overcrowding and insanitary 
conditions in London were contained in an Act of 1891, namely the 
Public Health (London) Act of that year. 

Further powers were given by Housing Acts of 1894, 1900 and 1903, 
and by the Housing, Town Planning, etc.. Act, 1909, which, besides 
amending and extending earlier powers, introduced for the first time 
powers relating to the town planning of land in course of development 
or likely to be used for building purposes. 

There were other Acts or parts of Acts which contained minor 
provisions for dealing with housing matters, but the above- 
mentioned were the principal enactments in force in 1914. 

Metropolitan Board of Works, 1855-1889 

Although the Metropolitan Board of Works came into existence 
in 1855, powers were not conferred on it in regard to housing until 



EARLIER DEVELOPMENTS 


8 


1875, when the first of the Cross Acts dealing with clearance of in- 
sanitary areas was passed. In the exercise of the powers conferred 
by that Act, and by subsequent Acts by virtue of which the Board’s 
powers were amplified and enlarged, the Board carried out sixteen 
clearance schemes which may be summarised as follows : — 

Area Persons Persons Net cost of 

affected displaced provided for clearance 

42 acres 22,872 27,730 £1,325,000 

Of the schemes referred to, the largest was that relating to Goulston- 
street and Flower-and-Dean-street, Whitechapel, which involved an 
area of 71 acres and the displacement of 4,000 persons. 

In no case did the Board itself erect any dwellings. It was the 
practice to sell the cleared sites to various artisans’ dwellings com- 
panies, and others, for the erection of working-class dwellings, and, 
in order to utilise the sites to the best financial advantage, dwellings 
Iwere erected to accommodate considerabty more than the minimum 
Inumber prescribed. 

Two of the Board’s schemes — Great Peter-street, Westminster, 
and Little Coram-street, Holborn — were carried out in co-operation 
with the Peabody Trustees. The areas were cleared by the Board 
on behalt* of the trustees and at their expense, the Board’s share in 
the cost being limited to the acquisition of property for the street 
widenings provided for. 

In addition to the sixteen schemes above referred to, six schemes 
were commenced by the Board and completed by the Council after 
its constitution in 1889. These schemes may be summarised as 
follows : — 

Area Persons Persons Net cost of 

affected displaced provided for clearance 

15| acres 6,132 2,949 £278,000 

London County Council, 1889-1914 — Survey of problem 

The Council succeeded the Metropolitan Board of Works in 1889, 
and the early part of the Council’s work was marked, not by a sudden 
departure from the policy pursued by the Board, but rather by 
greater vigour of administration, coupled with painstaking inquiry 
as to the direction which any new attempt to deal with the problem 
should take. 

Under the Local Government Act, 1888, constituting the County 
Councils, such County Councils were empowered to appoint medical 
officers and one of the Council’s first steps was to create the office 
of Medical Officer of Health of the County of London, and Mr. 
(afterwards Sir) Shirley F. Murphy was appointed thereto in May, 
1889. 

Information was then sought as to the existence of insanitary 
areas throughout the county, and attention was drawn to nearly 
200 separate areas or groups of areas of varying sizes and condition. 
Most of the areas were inspected, when it appeared that a large number 
could appropriately be dealt with by means of closing orders under 
Toirens’ Acts, and this course was accordingly suggested to the local 
sanitary authorities. In many instances, however, it was felt that 


4 


HOUSING 


any action that might be taken to get rid of these blots upon the sani- 
tary condition of London would be seriously hampered if not rendered 
altogether nugatory by the inadequacy of the law. This fact, com- 
bined with the obvious necessity of consolidating the numerous 
Aets relating to the housing of the working classes, induced the Council 
to make representations to the Government, which in conjunction 
with the report of the Royal Commission, led to the passing of the 
Housing of the Working Classes Act, 1890, already referred to. 

The first housing action of the Council after the passing of this 
Act was to proceed with the six schemes initiated but not com- 
pleted by the Metropolitan Board of Works. Continuing at first 
the policy of its predecessors, the Council offered for sale the cleared 
sites, 15| acres in extent, or parts of them, but without success, 
and one of the sites and part of another were instead laid out as 
open spaces ; some of the land was acquired by the London 
School Board, and the remainder was developed for rehousing 
purj)oses almost entirely by the Council itself. The housing value 
of the sites retained for rehousing was £19,030, and the cost of the 
buildings erected by the Council itself was £162,000. 

The Council then initiated, and before the end of 1912 completed, 
nine clearance schemes under Part I and four clearance schemes 
under Part II of the Act of 1890. Following is a summary of these 
schemes — 


Area 


40 acres 


Persons 

displaced 

16,434 


Persons 
provided for 

15,644 


, . r Cost of buildings 

Net cost oj erected on cleared 
clearance 

£790,000* £888,000* 


The largest of the schemes was that known as the Boundary-street, 
Bethnal Green, scheme. This comprised an area of 14| acres and 
involved the displacement of over 5,700 persons. The net cost of 
this scheme alone was £268,000 in respect of the clearance (after 
deduction of proceeds of sales, value of surplus land and housing 
value of site) and £282,500 in respect of the dwellings erected for 
rehousing. 

Accommodation was also provided in various dwellings and estates 
for over 12,000 persons displaced in connection with the construction 
of Thames bridges and tunnels, street widenings, etc. Included 
in the buildings erected in satisfaction either wholly or in part 
of rehousing obligations were three lodging houses for men, namely, 
one in 1892 at Parker-street, Drury-lane, at present accommodating 
345 men, Carrington House, Deptford, accommodating 814 men, 
and Bruce House, near Kingsway, aecommodating 716 men. 

There was also prepared and confirmed in 1912 a scheme in relation 
to the Tabard-street and Grotto-place areas, Southwark, and the 
Crosby-row area, Bermondsey, which involved the displacement of 
4,500 persons and a rehousing obligation as regards 2,580 (afterwards 
increased to 3,580) persons, but the operations in connection with 
.this scheme largely belong to post-war period. 

* Excluding the cost of one scheme which was home by Lord Portman. 




EARLIER DEVELOPMENTS 


5 


Between 1899 and 1908 the Council also acquired some 800 acres 
of land on the outskirts of London for the erection of cottage dwellings 
under Part III of the Act of 1890, and by 1st April, 1912, additional 
housing accommodation had been provided by the Council for about 
20,000 persons of the working classes under this part of the Act at a 
cost of roughly £1,000,000. In this way Totterdown Fields estate, 
Tooting, with 1,261 houses and flats, was developed, and White 
Hart-lane estate, Tottenham, Norbury estate near Croydon, and 
Old Oak estate, Hammersmith, were partially developed. 

The period from 1st April. l9l2, until the outbreak of war in 
August, 1914, was one of steady progress on the line of activity 
already laid down, so that by the latter date nearly 10,000 houses 
and flats had been provided at; a cost of a little over £8,000,000. 



CHAPTER II 

GENERAL REVIEW OF THE POST-WAR 
HOUSING DEVELOPMENTS 

Legislation 

During the War no appreciable building work, other than that 
required for the manufacture of munitions and for the fighting 
forces generally, was carried out in London. After the War, interest 
rates were high, and labour and materials were scarce. Building of 
houses by private enterprise, except for sale, was no longer profitable 
and remained at a complete standstill. The shortage of accommo- 
dation brought about by these causes demanded immediate legisla- 
tion to meet an ever-growing deficiency. 

Hitherto, no subsidy had been payable in respect of housing opera- 
tions which were generally on a self-supporting basis, the cost of 
clearance of unhealthy areas being a charge on the rates. But 
building had to be encouraged and the Housing, Town Planning, 
etc., Act of 1919 (known as Addison’s Act) recognised for the first 
time the principle of State subsidy for housing. The State subsidy 
is referred to in greater detail in Chapter XII. The Act provided 
that the whole of the annual loss resulting from approved schemes 
in excess of the produce of a rate of Id. in the pound should be borne 
by the State. It was soon realised that the State commitments 
would be on a much larger scale than had been antici])ated, and such 
assistance was subsequently restricted to houses approved by ll-th 
July, 1921. 

The assisted schemes under the Housing, etc.. Act, 1923, and the 
Housing (Financial Provisions) Act, 1924, provided for a State con- 
tribution of a fixed annual sum per house, the remainder of the loss 
being borne by the rates. State grants under these two schemes 
were modified and subsequently abolished for further houses 
(except for dwellings allocated for rehousing purposes) by the Housing 
Acts (Revision of Contributions) Orders of 1926 and 1928 and by 
the Housing (Financial Provisions) Act, 1933. 

The last-named Act also provided for the State and the local 
authority jointly to guarantee repayment to building societies of 
advances, up to 90 per cent, of the valuation, made to builders and 
investors for the purpose of promoting the provision of houses for 
letting to the working classes. 

The Housing, etc.. Act, 1923, further provided for the loss on slum 
clearance and rehousing schemes to be shared equally by the State 
and the ratepayer. 

The Housing Act, 1925, reproduced in a consolidated form the 
permanent law relating to the housing of the working classes in Eng- 
land and Wales. The temporary financial provisions in previous 
Acts (State grants, etc.) were, however, not incorporated but were 
left outstanding. 

The Housing Act, 1930, made further and better provision for the 
clearance and improvement of unhealthy areas and simplified the 
procedure. It provided for the State grant towards clearance and 
rehousing work to take the form of a fixed annual grant on a unit 



POST-WAR DEVELOPMENTS 


7 


basis of 45s. for each person displaced and rehoused, but where the 
rehousing accommodation is provided in tenement dwellings of more 
than three storeys on a clearance area or on another site of which 
the cost or value exceeds £3,000 an acre, the unit basis of the grant 
is increased to 70s. The rents of the houses had to be so fixed that, 
after allowing for the State grant, the rates must bear a charge of 
£3 15s. a house a year for 40 years, which is the period of the State 
grant. The financial arrangements arc designed to ensure that at 
the end of 40 years the houses will be financially self-supporting. 

The Act of 1930 also introduced a new method of dealing with 
areas (‘‘ improvement areas ”) in w^hich the conditions were not so 
bad as to justify wholesale clearance. This procedure was repealed 
in 1935 as being unnecessary in view of the wider powers of general 
application then conferred on local authorities. 

The Housing Act, 1935, was designed to ensure the abatement and 
prevention of overcrow^ding, and this" matter is dealt with in greater 
detail in Chapter V (Overcrowding). The Act also provided in the 
general law an entirely new procedure for dealing with extensive 
areas (“ redevelopment areas ”) which it may be found expedient to 
redevelop as a whole. Chapter IV gives an account of the Council’s 
proposals for dealing with a large area in the East End of London 
as a redevelopment area. 

The permanent law relating to housing of the working classes has 
now been further consolidated by the Housing Act, 1936, which came 
into operation on 1st January, 1937. A synopsis of this Act appears 
in the appendix of this volume. 

Programme in the early years of Post-War period 

It is the practice of the Council to review the housing problem of 
London from time to time and to determine the broad outlines of 
its policy and programme of its housing work over extended periods. 

At the time of the commencement of the War in 1914 the Council 
was proceeding with the Tabard-street and Grotto-place areas, 
Southwark, and the Crosby-row area, Bermondsey, under Part I 
of the Housing of the Working Classes Act, 1890, and the develop- 
ment of the cottage estates at Norbury, Croydon ; White Hart-lane, 
Tottenham ; and Old Oak, Hammersmith. 

As has already been stated, the War necessitated considerable 
curtailment of building activities, and before the cessation of hostilities 
it was evident that a house famine throughout the country, including 
London, would result. 

In 1919 the Council formulated a scheme for the erection within a 
period of 5 years of not fewer than 29,000 dwellings with accom- 
modation for approximately 145,000 persons. The programme aimed 
at the provision of additional housing accommodation to assist in 
meeting the shortage, and accordingly the activities of the Council 
in those early years were concentrated chiefly on the development of 
large cottage estates in the suburban districts. The need for the 
clearance of certain of the worst insanitary areas was not, however, 
overlooked and proposals for the clearance of a number of areas with 
a population of approximately 40,000 were included in the programme. 



8 


HOUSING 


These operations were undertaken with State financial assistance 
under the Housing, Town Planning, etc., Act, 1919. The Govern- 
ment’s subsequent decision to restrict assistance under tins Act to 
schemes approved by 14th July, 1921, resulted, however, in the 
supersession of the Councirs proposals. The number of dwellings 
erected by the Council under this Act was 9,447. 

Programme under Iloiismg Acts of 192S and 1924 

In April, 1923, a further prograinine was prepared providing for 
the erection of 6,000 houses to rank for State grant under the Housing, 
etc., Act, 1923. This programme was to b(‘ independent of the clear- 
ance of insanitary areas, but with the j)assing of the Act of 1924 
further building was carried out under that Act and the Council 
provided, apart from clearance scliemes, only 2,062 houses under the 
Act of 1923. The work of clearing insanitary areas, however, con- 
tinu(?d, and altogether about 4,225 new dwellings have been })rovided 
by the Council for rehousing ])urposes in connection with clearance 
schemes undertaken since the War up to the passing of the Housing 
Act, 1930. 1 b 

As regards building under the Act of 1924, the C^ouncil did not lay 
down a specified programme but in July, 1924, decided to erect, 
as an immediate measure of relief, some 20,000 dwellings as and when 
opportunity offered. The situation was reviewed on a number of 
occasions and the provision of further accommodation was decided 
upon from time to time. Nearly 40,000 dwellings in all were 
provided by the Council under the Act of 1924 up to 36th June, 1934, 
when this particular form of State grant was terminated so far as 
further new houses were concerned. 

Dwellings in central areas 

In July, 1928, the Council decided that special attention should 
be paid to the needs of those workers in London who required to 
reside near their places of employment, and a sum of £500,000 was 
voted for the acquisition of sites for new dwellings for that purpose. 
The number of dwellings so provided with State grant under the 
,^t of 1924 was 1,771 (included in the figure of 40,000 mentioned 
above), all of which were completed by 30th June, 1934. 

Dwellings for letting at specially, low rents 

The rehousing of the poorer people from clearance and other areas 
presents serious difficulties, and various methods have been employed 
to meet their needs. In the earlier stages of post-war clearance one 
u factors enabling the work to be carried out was the owner- 

ship by the Council of a large number of existing houses acquired to 
provide sites for various purposes in connection with the education 
and other services. Many of these houses were maintained in 
periods before they were required for demolition, 
but the facilities thus available became exhausted in time and a 
number of new dwellings of a simplified type of planning and others 
of nonnal planning with a reduced standard of finish were provided 
for letting at lower rents than those normally charged by the 



POST-WAR DEVELOPMENTS 


9 


Council. As a further measure for dealing with the problem, some 
blocks of existing house prop(‘rty were specially acquired for re- 
conditioning and letting at low rents. Notwithstanding what had 
already been done, there was an increasing demand, as the process 
oi’ clearance proceeded, for accommodation at low rents and the 
Council, in 1932, adopted two modified types of dwellings of simple 
design and cheap form of construction. 

Apart from the question of rehousing displaced families, the Council 
has also provided accommodation at low rents at certain of its 
cottage estat(‘s especially for the poorer classes of the community, 
and a number of non-parlour houses of simplified design have been 
erected at B(?contree and St. Helier estate. The several types of 
plans in use by the Council are referred to in greater detail in Chapters 
VI and VTI.‘ 

1930 — Five-year programme 

The housing |)osition in London was further reviewed during 1930 
as a result of the passing of the Housing Act, 1930, which required 
the submission to tlie Minister of Health of a statement of the housing 
measures contemplated in the five next succeeding years, and the 
programme aj)proved by the Council in December, 1930, envisaged, 
broadly speaking, a caj)ital expenditure in the ensuing five years 
of £21,825,000 for the provision of about 34,670 houses and flats, 
including 6,200 for rehousing persons from clearance and improve- 
ment areas. The programme of slum clearance included 27 areas 
comprising about 98 acres with a population of about 30,500. 

The hopes arising from this programme, however, were not capable 
of fulfilment within the allotted time owing to the restrictions imposed 
by the financial position which developed in August, 1931. This 
had its inevitable repercussions on the finances of the Council. 
Capital expenditure on all its services, including housing, was rigidly 
curtailed, and within the succeeding months the immediate programme 
was confined to existing contractual commitments and what was 
necessary for essential projects. Construction proceeded at two 
of the Council’s cottage estates, namely, Becontree and St. Helier 
estate, and it was also found possible to acquire two fresh sites for 
cottage property, namely, about 244 acres at Mottingham, Kent, 
at a cost of £63,361, and about 142 acres at Chigwell, Essex, at a cost 
of £24,655. Fresh proposals for slum clearance were also initiated 
and much preliminary work carried through in order to facilitate 
rapid progress when the requisite capital money again became 
available. 

Dwellings for aged persons 

In 1931 the Council gave consideration to the question of the pro- 
vision of a limited number of dwellings of small dimensions specially 
suited to the needs of aged persons and approved types of flats 
arranged in two-storey buildings suitable for erection at cottage 
estates. Each type of flat has the usual amenities of bath, sink, 
and as they are intended for aged persons, the stairs 
leading to the first-floor flats have a rise less than is normal, but are, 
in consequence, greater in number. 




10 


HOUSING 


Improvement areas 

As has already been stated, the Housing Act, 1930, introduced 
a new method of dealing with areas known as improvement areas 
without recourse to wholesale clearance. The Council was empowered 
to declare an area to be an improvement area and to purchase and 
demolish houses or other buildings for opening out the area. It 
was then the duty of the metropolitan borough council concerned 
to require the owners to take the necessary steps for the improvement 
of their property and to order the demolition of houses which could 
not be made fit for habitation. It was the duty of the borough council 
also to secure the abatement of overcrowding, and, by the enforcement 
of by-laws made by the Council, to ensure that the area should not be 
allowed to slip back into its previous bad condition. The provision 
of new dwellings for the persons displaced devolved on the Council. 

It has already been stated that the procedure was repealed by the 
1935 Act, but before the repeal of these provisions the Council had 
declared five areas to be improvement areas as follows : — 

Clarendon-street area^ Paddington, consisting of 50 dwc‘lling 
houses and other buildings, housing a population of about 
783 persons. Part of Wormholt estate, Hammersmith, was 
utilised to provide rehousing accommodation for about 176 
persons displaced from this area. 

Southam-street {Nos, 1 and 2) areas, Kensington. No. 1 
area comprised 285 dwellings and 7 other buildings, and No. 2 
area 127 dwellings. The total displacement of 1,242 persons 
out of a total population of 6,083 was involved. 

Crescent-street area, Kensington. The total number of 
persons in occupation of houses in the area (less 86 persons 
occupying common lodging houses and unaffected by the pro- 
cedure) was 1,686. Of these, it was estimated that it would be 
necessary to displace 107 persons to abate overcrowding and 
120 persons from parts of houses proposed to be closed, making 
a total displacement of 227 persons. 

Treverton-street area, Kensin^on. The total population 
of the area was 2,449. Of these it was estimated that it would 
be necessary to displace 211 persons to abate overcrowding, 
233 persons from parts of houses to be closed, and 52 persons 
from four houses to be demolished, making a total displacement 
of 496 persons. 

The Council of the Royal Borough of Kehsin^on undertook to 
arrange for the provision of rehousing accommodation for the persons 
displaced from the Southam-street, Crescent-street and Treverton- 
street areas. 

Acceleration of slum clearance from 1933 

On account of the financial situation, restricted development con- 
tinu^ in the financial year 1932-33, and, at the beginning of 1933, 
the Council was proceeding steadily with its programme of slum 
clearance and rehousing within the limitation which the Council had 
placed on its capital expenditure. In April, 1988, in view of the 
more favourable conditions, it was felt that the time had arrived for 
an intensive campaign for slum clearance and improvement. The 



POST-WAR DEVELOPMENTS 


11 


Minister of Health launched an appeal to local authorities throughout 
the country for a comprehensive programme to ensure a speedier 
end to the evil within a limited time. The appeal contemplated a 
programme of slum clearance and improvement on the basis of 
clearing all areas that required clearance within a period of 5 years 
generally throughout the country, although it was recognised that 
the effort required in the County of London would be greater in 
comparison with any other urban aggregation, and that the time 
needed would be longer in proportion. 

The Council responded promptly and a preliminary outline of the 
nature and extent of the problem was prepared, A list of the 
unhealthy areas in London was made, classified into three sections, 
as follows : — 

1. Small groups of badly arranged houses in courts, mews, 
alleys, etc., so small or so placed that, generally speaking, re- 
housing on the sites was impracticable ; 

2. Larger areas capable of redevelopment by the erection 
of working-class dwellings ; 

3. Groups of substantially built houses overcrowded and 
in a bad state of repair, which might be dealt with as improve- 
ment areas. 

On this basis the Council adopted a policy of slum clearance and 
improvement extending over a period of 10 years, involving the 
displacement of about 250,000 persons at an estimated cost of 
£35,000,000. 

Up to the end of May, 1934, 38 areas had been declared to be clear- 
ance areas under the Housing Act, 1930, involving the demolition of 
3,300 houses and the displacement of 19,382 persons. In addition, 
four of the improvement areas already referred to had been declared. 

After the reconstitution of the Council in March, 1934, a schedule 
of slum clearance operations was prepared covering a period of three 
years (June, 1934, to June, 1937) in respect of all the larger unhealthy 
areas in London (132 in number) capable of redevelopment by the 
erection of working-class dwellings. The programme involved the 
displacement of 83,250 persons from 13,867 houses. 

The remaining areas principally comprise small groups of badly 
arranged houses in section 1, referred to above, and it is proposed 
to deal with some of these at the same time as the larger areas, 
whilst others will be cleared as and when additional sites are available. 

Collaterally with the acceleration of slum clearance work under- 
taken by the Council, increased activity has taken place within the 
past three years with regard to cottage estates. Tne development 
of Mottingham estate, acquired in 1931, was commenced in 1934, 
and further sites were acquired at Hanwell, Harrow and Kenmore 
Park, Middlesex ; Chingford and Grange Hill, Essex ; Whitefoot 
Lane, Lewisham ; and Park Lane (Thornhill estate), Charlton. 

Present position of the question 

The fulfilment of a slum clearance and rehousing programme such 
as has been described has necessarily entailed considerable prelimin- 
ary work of an administrative nature. Steps have been taken to 




12 


HOUSING 


shorten certain stages of the initial procedure for dealing with pro- 
posals, and strict time and progress schedules have been laid down 
for the actual building work. In order to accelerate progress still 
further, architects in private practice have been employed to undertake 
the architectural work in connection with tlu' development of tliree 
sites for block dwellings. 

The following figures show the number of dwellings ])rovided by 
the Council each year since March, 1919: — 



Total 

Hoiisr.s and flats provided 
on cottage estate.s 

Flats provided in 
block dwellings 

31af. Man'll j 

i 

dwellings 

provided 

Nnmher 

1 IVircentagc' 

1 of total 

Number 

Pereentage 
of total 

1920 

0 

6 

100 0 




1921 

370 

326 

88-1 

44 

11 9 

1922 

1,708 

1 ,630 

95 4 

78 

4-6 

1923 

5,107 

5,035 

98-6 

72 

1-4 

1924 

857 

732 

85*4 

125 

14-6 

1925 

1,600 

1,499 

93 7 

101 

6 3 

1920 

2,350 

2,203 

93*7 

147 

6 3 

1927 

5,207 

4,818 

92 5 

389 

7 5 

1928 

9,410 

8,647 

91-9 

763 

81 

1929 

8,288 

7,826 

94 '4 

462 

5-6 

1930 

2,787 

2,094 

75-1 

693 

24-9 

1931 

4,451 

3,908 

87-8 

543 

12*2 

1932 

5,867 

4,483 

76 '4 

1,384 

23-6 

1933 

3,923 

2,630 

67 0 

1 ,2t)3 

33 0 

1934 

3,096 

2,212 

71-4 

884 

28 '6 

1935 

3,535 

1,865 

52-8 

1,670 

47 2 

1930 

4,510 

1,753 

38-8 

2,757 

61 *2 

1937 

7,502 

2,638 

35 2 

4,864 

64*8 


NOTiL-«“Tho sum of this table differs somewhat from the total of dwollinps 
provided as shown ill the appendix. This is aeeonnted for by the fact that the 
appendix shows the total after dodueting properties demolished, converted or sold 
to other authorities. 

The table shows that the total number of dwellings provided during 
the year ended March, 1937, was the highest total since 1929. In 
1929, however, the greater part of the development was on cottage 
estates, on sites mainly outside London. Of the dwellings provided 
in the year ended March, 1937, 2,638 were houses and flats provided 
on cottage estates and 4,864 were flats in block dwellings mainly 
on sites which had to be cleared of old buildings. The number of 
block dwellings provided in each of the years 1935, 1936 and 1937, 
was the highest recorded since the War. 

There is a reasonable prospect of the slum problem in London, as 
it exists at present, being solved well within the period of ten years 
originally contemplated, although it must be borne in mind that 
additional areas not yet defined will need attention during that period. 

The number of flats in block dwellings in course of erection at 
the end of March, 1937, was about 4,140, and the number of houses 
and flats at cottage estates in course of erection on the same date 
was about 3,130. 

Up to 31st March, 1937, the capital expenditure on all dwellings 
and estates including unhealthy areas amounted to about £52,500,000. 



CHAPTER III 
SLUM CLEARANCE 

The derivation of the word “ slum ” is uncertain, but it is probably 
related to the (German Schlamm (mud or mire) and it has come to be 
associated in the public mind with areas, inhabited by the very 
poor, composed of mean streets and squalid houses. Such areas 
have, of course, long existed, but public opinion has been slow to 
recognise the fact that the collective health of a community depends 
on the health of its individual members and that a faulty environment 
reacts deleteriously on health. Apart from such diseases as plague 
and typhus, now happily extinct in this country, w^hich have from 
earliest times been associated with the massing together of human 
beings in unhealthy surroundings, there are other equally serious 
diseases resulting directly or indirectly from similar associations. 
For example, diseases spread by droplet infection, including many 
of the infectious fevers and certain respiratory diseases, especially 
pneumonia and j)ulmonary tuberculosis, are favoured in their attack 
by the aggregation of potential victims in insanitary areas and 
houses. Indirectly also, the lack of sunlight and fresh air, by lowering 
the general bodily resistance, predisposes to disease, especially in 
children, while dampness, so common m slum areas in London, 
plays a very serious part in predisposing towards acute catarrhal 
and rheumatic conditions. 

There is, however, another aspect of the matter to be considered. 
Mental health and physical health go hand in hand, and the psycho- 
logical effect of living in mean surroundings, in houses which are 
dark, damp and dilapidated, and where privacy and cleanliness are 
obtained with difficulty if at all, cannot be neglected in any attempt 
to assess the effect of faulty environment on the mental, moral and 
physical fibre of the occupants. 

The Nature of the Problem 

Every city has its own peculiar slum problems depending on its 
social and industrial evolution, and London is no exception to the 
rule. The position here may be considered under two headings ; 
{a) insanitary houses and {b) insanitary areas. 

Insanitary houses. — Speaking generally, four types of insanitary 
houses suitable at present for “ clearance area ” action are found in 
London. First, there arc the two-storey terrace-type houses erected 
in large numbers in the early years of the last century as working-class 
dwellings. The illustrations on page 14 are typical of this type of 
building. The rows of houses, fronting on narrow streets and separ- 
ated at the rear from identical houses in the next street by little 
shut-in yards cumbered with dilapidated outhouses, form a depressing 
spectacle. Internally, the dwellings do not belie their appearance. 
Consisting usually of four rooms with a lean-to wash-house, the 
dark passage, narrow, steep and dark vstairs and general dilapidation 
produce an impression of general neglect and poverty. Built before 
the days of effective damp proof courses, they usually have severe 
rising damp in the ground floor rooms while the fabric, now porous, 
allows percolating damp to show large stains in the upper rooms. 

( 13 ) 



14 


HOUSING 



TWO-STOREY TERRACE-TYPE OF HOUSE FOUND IN MOST WORKING- 
CLASS DISTRICTS OF LONDON 





SLUM CLEARANCE 


15 


To add to the discomfort, roof leaks are often present. Sanitary 
conveniences consist in many instances of a dilapidated water-closet 
at the end of the defectively paved yard and approached, after rain, 
over a series of muddy puddles. Washing facilities are frequently 
limited to a tap in the yard with no sink or, in the more favoured 
cases, to a tap, sink or copper (which is often broken) in the low, dark, 
damp back-addition. 

By their very age, apart from faulty construction and neglect, 
these houses show disrepair, with sloping broken floors ; weak and 
broken stairs ; perished wall plaster and sagged and broken ceilings. 
Last, but not least, verminous infestation is very common. 

This type of house, however, has one advantage from the point 
of view of slum clearance. No alternative measures have to be 
considered. The only remedy is complete demolition and clearance 
on a large scale. 

The second type to be found has quite a different origin. Consisting 
of cottages which stood originally in semi-rural surroundings they 
arc usually older than the first group and have been, as it were, 
swallowed U}) by the growth of London. Their long gardens proved 
too great a temptation for the speculative builder and the industrialist, 
and these pathetic relics are to be found in courts and alleys behind 
factories and hemmed in on all sides by taller and more modern 
buildings. Survey has proved that this type of house is far more 
numerous than might have been expected, and they are found 
even in the central parts of London but much more commonly, of 
course, in the outer boroughs. 



A TYPE OF THREE-STOREY TENEMENT HOUSE 



16 


HOUSING 


The lack of light and air round these dwellings is made worse by 
their internal arrangement. The street door generally opens directly 
into the living-room and stairs lead directly from living room 
into bedroom. In addition, the rooms arc very low and the windows 
undersized. All the defects of dampness, disrepair and verminous 
infestation are generally present to a marked extent. Again the 
only remedy is demolition. 

The third type is the tenement house, one variety of whicli is shown 
on page 15. " Built for one family and consisting usually of three 
storeys and a basc'inent, well built and fronting on a wide street, 
it retains some of its original dignity. The former one-family 
occupants, however, have' been displaced by several families, usually 
one on each floor and sometimes even one family in one room. TIk' 
one water-clos(‘t is oftcai sharc'd by all ; a tap in the yard or basement 
may serve the whole Jiouse and proper facilities for storage, ))repara- 
tion and cooking of food are often absent. Hard wear, neglect and 
frequent overcrowding result in a state of dilapitlation. 

These houses present a very difficult ])roblem. Structurally they 
arc often sound and it has to be decidetl whether they can be put 
into a satisfactory state of repair at a reasonabk* cost or whetJier 
the most satisfactory method is to demolish them. 

Lastly there is tlie insanitary mews dwelling of the tyj)e illustrated 
on this page. Originally built as stables, without light or ventilation 
in the rear, with hay and harness lofts or a coachman’s room or 
rooms above, tlu^y have, by the departure of the original occupants 
of the neighbourhood, become in many cases the home of the very 



MEWS DWELLINGS ORIGINALLY BUILT AS STABLES 



SLUM CLEARANCE 


17 


poor. Access is often through a narrow passage-way, and the 
dwellings are grouped round a badly paved courtyard filled with 
costermongers’ barrows, carts or motor cars garaged in the original 
stables. The living quarters are approached by steep stairs, and often 
consist of the original loft divided up by a series of partitions with 
most of the rooms intercommunicating. Rear rooms are almost 
invariably lighted by a skylight only, and the whole mews is so shut 
in that air is almost stagnant. Sanitary conveniences and washing 
facilities are inadequate and leaky roofs and porous fabric add to 
the genera] discomfort. 

While there can be no doubt as to the unfitness of this type of 
property for human habitation, there is often some difficulty in 
deciding the best method of action. Clearance may inflict hardship 
on those using the ground floor portion for business, stabling or 
garages, whereas closing orders on tln^ uj)})cr portions may lead to 
the mews becoming a nuisance arid a still greater eyesore in the 
neighbourhood. Each case has to be decided on its own particular 
merits and demerits. 

hisanitary areas . — The insanitary liouscs described above arc the 
units making the area, and brief reference has been made to the 
narrow streets, courts, alleys and blind endings in which they are 
grouj)ed. A further factor in producing insanitary areas in London 
is the iut(‘rmixing witli industry. Factories and workshops have been 
erected in the j)ast without any regard for the inhabitants of the 
area and in certain districts even the back gardens have been taken 
up by workshops. 

Treatment of insanitary areas 

It is now necessary to consider the treatment of an insanitary area 
or, as it is technically known under the Housing Act, a clearance 
area ” from its representation by the nuHlieal officer of health until 
the time when the site is cleared and is available for the erection of 
new buildings. The various stages in the proceedings are generally 
but little realised and, consequently, use is sometimes made of such 
phrases as ‘‘ Dynamite the slums,” from wdiieh it would appear that 
there is an impression that the slum area can be swept away in one 
operation and automatically replaced by modern })roperly designed 
housing accommodation. This is far from the truth, and in point of 
fact, before new dwellings can be erected there is a complex series of 
operations which may take up to two years or more between repre- 
sentation of the clearance area and its replacement by a new estate. 

These operations arc mainly the responsibility of the valuer to the 
Council, who works in close co-operation with the other departments 
of the C\)uncil and notably with the medical officer of health, the 
solicitor and the architect. 

Under the existing housing legislation there are two methods open 
to a local authority to deal with the rehabilitation of an insanitary 
area : (1) by means of a compulsory purchase order and (2) by means 
of a clearance order. The initial procedure in both cases is to some 
extent similar, for it is the duty of the local authority to secure the 
clearance of the area and to provide rehousing accommodation for 




A TYPICAL COURT 





A TYPICAL COLRT SURROUNDED BY TALLER INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS 


C 


20 


HOUSING 


the persons displaced. The essential difference is that in the first 
case the local authority acquires the property, demolishes the 
buildings and itself redevelops or disposes of the site, and in the 
second case the site is left in the possession of the owners, who are 
required to demolish the insanitary buildings standing thereon. As 
far as the Council is concerned, the initial procedure in both eases 
follows the same lines and may be summarised as follows : — 

1. The valuer indicates to the medical officer of health where 
and when new rehousing accommodation can be provided and 
the approximate extent thereof. 

2. The medical officer indicates to the valuer in reply an area 
from his previously prepared schedule which he is rc‘ady to 
represent as a clearance area after making j)reliminarv detailed 
inspection of the houses. 

3. The valuer takes a census of the ])opulation resident on the 
proposed area and obtains details as to the number of men, 
women and children, places of employment, rents at present 
paid for accommodation on the area and various other rc‘lativ(' 
statistics. He also prepares a detailed survey plan. Copies 
of this plan are sent to the medical officer of health to enable 
him to submit his final representation to the Housing and 
Public Health Committee of the Council. The valuer, the 
medical officer of health and the architect pr(*pare and submit 
full reports dealing with details of the area and the estimated 
displacement whilst the valuer and the architect arc responsible 
for estimates of the cost of acquisition of the area — (if a com- 
pulsory purchase order is contemplated) — and the prox ision 
of the necessary rehousing accommodation. 

4. After consideration of the reports by the various appro])riate 
committees of the Council, and after any special ]>oints have 
been disposed of, the proposal is submitted to the Council. 

5. After approval by the Council and a formal declaration by 
the Council as required by the Housing Act, the solicitor is 
instructed to draft the necessary order or orders. To enable 
this to be done the valuer makes detailed imjuiries in order to 
prepare a book of reference of all owners and lessees (except 
tenants for a month or less) of every property in the area. The 
time taken is not entirely dependent on the officers but to 
some extent on the readiness with which information (*an be 
obtained from owners. During the period the medical officer 
of health prepares his detailed evidence and provides a list of 
the principal defects for the information of the objectors. In 
the meantime the Council may acquire properties in the area 
by arrangement, and to the extent to which this is done a 
compulsory purchase order becomes unnecessary. 

6. After the order has been made by the Council it is necessary 
for it to be advertised in the press before it is submitted to the 
Minister of Health for confirmation. 

7. After submission of the order to the Minister of Health it is 
given a preliminary consideration by him. If there are any 
objections which have not been withdrawn a public local 




S L U M C’ L E A R A N C E 


21 


inquiry is necessary, of which notice is given by public advertise- 
ment and by written notice to the objectors. The public 
inquiry is usually held in the town hall of the metropolitan 
borough in which the property, the subject of the order, is 
situated. The inquiry is conducted on formal lines before an 
inspector of the Ministry of Health and the Council is usually 
represented by counsel as are frequently the objectors. Expert 
witnesses tender evidence both for the Council and for the 
f)bjcctors. After the public inquiry the Minister’s inspector 
makes an inspection of the area and in due course the order, if 
approved, is confirmed by the Minister with or without modifica- 
tions and the Council is so informed. 

8. The order, as confirmed, is advertised and a period of six weeks 
must elapse in order to give an opportunity to persons aggrieved 
to appeal to the High Court before such order becomes operative. 

The total time taken on the foregoing procedure, before the Council 
is legally in a position to ])roceed with the actual clearance of the 
insanitary houses, may be from twelve to eighteen months or even 
more. The time taken is dependent to some extent upon the size 
of the area but more upon the ease or otherwise with which a solution 
can be found of the individual probleuns peculiar to each area. Human 
beings cannot be moved like pawns on a chess-board. The problems 
to be solved relate? to human beings and must therefore receive the 
careful consideration of the Council and the Minister of Health. 
Eventually, however, the order becomes operative and the Council 
is able to exercise the powers therein contained. 

If the order is a clearance order formal notice is served on the 
owners requiring them to demolish the insanitary buildings within 
a specified period after the vacation of the premises by the tenants. 
New accommodation is offered to the tenants by officers of the 
valuation, estates and housing department and arrangements for 
their removal are made by the staff of women assistants specially 
engaged on this work. 

After vacation of the premises the owner must demolish the 
property and is then enabled himself to proceed with the re-develop- 
ment of the site, subject to such restrictions as the Council may have 
imposed. 

If, however, the order which was made in respect of the clearance 
area was a compulsory j)urchase order and not a clearance order, 
a further series of operations becomes necessary, set out as follows ; — 

1. Report by the officers to the Housing and Public Health 
Committee on the order as confirmed together, if necessary, 
with revised estimates of cost, etc., if the order has been sub- 
stantially modified. This may involve further submission to 
the Council. 

2. The order is referred to the solicitor and to the valuer to make 
effective and the following steps are necessary : — 

{a) Service of notices to treat on the owners by the solicitor. 



22 


HOUSING 


(&) Receipt of forms of claim from the owners by the 
solicitor and subsequent despatch to the valuer. 

(c) Negotiations by the valuer with the owners or their 
professional advisers on every form of claim. In general it 
is possible, although sometimes only after protracted negotia- 
tions, to arrive at a settlement of the majority of claims by 
agreement. There arc certain cases which it is impossible 
to settle by agreement between the valuer and the owner’s 
surveyors and these comprise the next step. 

{d) Possible arbitrations. Disputed claims arc submitted 
to an independent official arbitrator appointed under the 
Acquisition of Land (Assessment of Compensation) Act, 1919. 
The Council’s case is presented by counsel and su])ported by 
evidence tendered by the valuer and, if necessary, by other 
expert witnesses. In due course the arbitrator’s award is 
published and is enforceable and thus the final step is reached. 

{e) Formal completion of the purchase by the Council’s 
solicitor in association with the owner's solicitor. 

The Council is thus now' in possession of tJie property and the 
time taken for these last-mentioned ste):)s in the procedure 
may be estimated at 6 months. 

This time may, Jiow'ever, be shortened if, as is sometimes the 
case, it is possible to settle the matter by agreement or to take 
possession compulsorily and thus secure early possession. 

3. On obtaining possession of a number of houses on the area, 
specially trained officers from the valuation, estates and housing 
department call on the tenants of these houses and arrange for 
their removal to other new^ accommodation off the area, as 
was previously mentioned in the case of clearance orders. This 
new accommodation is in each case selected to meet the needs 
of the particular case. By this means a s\dlicient portion of 
the area is cleared to enable a block of dwellings to be erected 
thereon which may itself serv'e in the clearance of the remainder 
of the area. The erection of the first block of dwellings might in 
favourable circumstances be completed in 8-9 months. 

4. The procedure thus outlined is repeated with regard to the next 
section of the area until the wdiolc area is cleared and re- 
developed. 

Complete reconstruction of the area may take a period of 
3-4 years, depending on its size and the case with which 
clearance can be effected. 

The foregoing will give some idea of the complexity of the problem 
which awaits the Council in connection with each individual 
clearance area. The times involved in the various stages have, 
on the average, been reduced to the minimum, but no one of these 
stages can be omitted. They are inherent in our legal system, which 
provides that the rights of property shall be respected and that no 
man’s property shall be taken from him without full consideration 
being given to his case. 

Some idea of the magnitude of the problem may be gathered 
from the fact that since the passing of the Housing Act, 1930 , up 



SLUM CLEARANCE 


23 


to 31st December, 1986, the Council has declared 165 areas to be 
clearance areas, of which 107 have been dealt with by way of compul- 
sory purchase orders and 58 by way of clearance orders. These areas 
comprise a total acreage of 306 acres and involve a total population 
of over 68,000 persons. The needs of every one of the families 
comprised in this population have had to be considered as regards 
the new accommodation to which they have been or are being 
removed. This consideration must give weight not only to the con- 
stitution of the various families but also to their respective means 
and to the places of emj)loyment of the wage earners. It will, for 
example, be appreciated that it is economically unsound for a man 
employed in Shoreditch to be transferred to housing accommodation 
in Southwark, or vice ivt.sy/. The above-mentioned figures relate 
only to actual slum clearance areas and make no provision for the 
abatement of ovc^rerowding, for the re-development of large areas 
first envisaged by the Housing Act, 1935, for the acquisition and 
development of central rehousing sites, or for cottage estates ; par- 
ticulars of all these will be found in the appropriate chapters. 

A practical illustration of the problem of slum clearance and of 
the provision of new housing accommodation is provided in the 
Rockingham estate, which is situate in Southwark adjacent to 
the “ Elephant and Castle.” The following particulars of this 
estate will exemplify the procedure previously enumerated. 

This estate was dealt with in thrcjc portions — two of these portions 
being clearance areas and the third a rehousing site acquired by the 
Council under Part III of the Housing Act, 1925. The two clearance 
areas were, respectively. Tarn-street area of 5 acres and Ayliffe-street 
area of 4 acres. The rehousing site was known as Rockingham- 
street site and comprised 9 acres. Thus the total re-developed 
Rockingham estate will consist of 18 acres. On the former clearance 
areas and rehousing site there was resident, largely in unfit houses, 
a population of about 3,300 persons. It wdll be sufficient by way of 
illustration to enumerate the various stages in regard to the Ayliffe- 
street area which is the last part of the Rockingham estate to be 
dealt wdth. These were as follows : — 


The medical officer of health represented the 
area as a clearance area to the Hoiasing and 
Public Health Committee 
The valuer obtained the necessary information 
as to population and ownership and submitted 
detailed estimates and report ... 

The Council declared the area to be a clearance 
area and decided to make a compulsory pur- 
chase order 

The compulsory purchase order was submitted 
to the Minister of Health for confirmation ... 
The public local inquiry into the compulsory 
purchase order was held 
The order was confirmed by the Minister 
The order became operative 


October, 1934. 


February, 1935. 


April, 1935. 

August, 1935. 

November,1985. 
January, 1936. 
March, 1936. 




24 


H O IJ S I N G 


Notices to treat were served upon the owners of 
the property and forms of claim received by 
the valuer ... ... ... ... ... May, 

The first blocks of dwellings on the rehousing 

site were ready for occupation ... ... ... May, 

The last claims were settled ... ... ... January, 

The first site on the clearance area will be 
cleared ready for the erection of new housing 
accommodation ... ... ... ... ... April, 


1936. 

1936. 

1937. 


1937. 


It will thus be seen that, in the cxamj)le given, the technical 
procedure of slum clearance operations in regard to the Ayliffc’ 
street area took considerably over two years from the first practical 
steps until the final clearance, though only nine months were taken 
in actual negotiations with the owners. Similar operations were 
carried out in regard to the Tarn-street area, commencing in 1933, 
some months before the Ayliffe-street area, and the area was mainly 
cleared by the spring of 1936. Concurrently with the clearance of 
these two areas the Council proceeded with the development of the 
adjacent Rockingham-street site in order to provide further rehousing 
accommodation. This site was acquired by agreement in 1934 and 
comprised a site of nine acres which was previously occupied by a 
number of houses with large gardens and also by some vacant land. 
Thus there emerged from the clearance of these two areas and the 
development of the site the final comprehensive Rockingham estate of 
18 acres. The estate forms the most extensive operation undertaken 
by the Council in Central London since the passing of the Housing 
Act, 1930, and represents an estimated total capital expenditure in 
respect of the acquisition of the property and clearance of the old 
buildings and removal of the tenants of £232,000. To this must be 
added a sum of £525,000 in respect of the capital expenditure 
estimated to be incurred in the erection of the new block of dwellings. 
Details of these dwellings and of the lay-out of the estate will be 
found in Chapter VI. 


Conclusion 

As stated in Chapter II, the Council, in 1933, adopted a 10-year pro- 
gramme ot slum clearance and improvement involving the displace- 
ment of 250,000 persons at an estimated cost of £35,000,000. This 
itself accelerated in 1934 to provide for the clearance 
or all the large unhealthy areas, involving a total displacement of 
98,000 persons, by June, 1937. When it is realized 
that the total population to be displaced approximates to the popula- 
tion of the City of Portsmouth, and that by June, 1937, a population 
equival^t to that of Bournemouth will already have been dealt with, 
it will ^ realized that the Council has undertaken an enormous 
tosk both in its financial and human implications. It may be con- 
fidently stated that this task is now well in hand. 

^ There must, of necessity, always be a number of unfit houses in 
j^ndon since houses, like human beings, must wear out sooner or later. 
The machinery is now available for dealing with them and, what is 




SLUM CLEARANCE 


25 


more important, public opinion, without which the machinery is 
ineffective, is in favour of action. It must be remembered, however, 
that the slums now being dealt with originated in the beginning of 
the last century and even earlier in some cases. As the standard 
rises, large blocks of property built since that time will probably have 
to be dealt with in a similar manner. To give one instance : let it be 
considered how many houses in London are still without a bath 
or indoor sanitation. The health of the community depends on the 
health of the individual who is, in turn, dependent on his environment. 
There is nothing in the nature of things to prevent that environment 
being adjusted within limits in accordance with the wishes of mankind. 


CHAPTER IV 
REDEVELOPMENT AREAS 

Section 13 of the Housing Act, 1935, provided in tlie general law 
an entirely new procedure', known as ‘‘ redevelopment ” (as distinct 
from clearance) for dealing with extensive areas which it is expedient 
to redevelop as a whole. The provisif)ns ot this section have been 
re-enacted in the Housing Act, 1936, and are outlined on page 253 
of the Appendix to this handbook. 

Housing conditions in the East End of London 

Since the passing of the Housing Act, 1935, the Council lias 
considered the question of applying the redevelopment area pro- 
cedure to certain parts of London. 

Housing conditions in a large part of the East End, particularly 
in the Metropolitan Boroughs of Stepney, Bethnal Green and Shore- 
ditch, have for many years been regarded with the gravest concern. 
Past efforts at reconstruction have been confined to the worst of the 
unhealthy areas and, owing to the lack of suitable rehousing accom- 
modation, })rogress has been slow. For the rest, reliance has been 
placed on improved public health administration, which, while 
affording a large measure of amelioration, is powerk'ss against the 
evils of cramped planning, bad internal arrangement of houses, 
structural decay and major sanitary defects. 

Prior to the passing of the 1935 Act it had been possible to do little 
more than touch the fringe of the problem, which has become in- 
creasingly important and urgent owing to the demand for an im|)rov(‘- 
ment in the general standard of housing accommodation, the in- 
auguration of the campaign against slums and overcrowding, and the 
application of the principles of town planning to built-up areas. 

In the heart of the East End the development, in the main, is more 
than 100 years old, and in some parts considerably older. The ])rac- 
tical difficulties of dealing with the problem in this district are vastly 
increased by the sporadic introduction of industry and commerce 
into what were originally residential areas. The houses which are 
unfit for human habitation constitute a considerable percentage 
of the whole. Many are in clearly-defined areas of sufficient extent 
to form sites for the erection of block dwellings, but the remainder 
are in small groups scattered in large numbers over an extensive 
area. The larger aggregations of unfit houses can suitably be dealt 
with individually as clearance areas by the process of acquisition 
and reconstruction by the Council. The smaller groups do not afford 
sites of sufficient size for the erection of block dwellings and would 
by the normal clearance area procedure be dealt with by clearance 
orders. The sites would be left with the owners, who in many in- 
stances would not be in a position to redevelop them to advantage ; 
and such piecemeal treatment would perpetuate the bad planning 
of the district which is the fundamental obstacle in the way of an 
effective and permanent remedy of the existing evils. The only 
satisfactory alternative would be a general redevelopment of the 
whole district on modern lines, involving the closing of some of the 


(20 



REDEVELOPMENT AREAS 


27 


streets, the widening and improvement of others, the provision of 
open spaces and the re-arrangement of housing, industrial and 
commercial user ; and sooner or later it will be necessary to consider 
whether a proposal of such magnitude is feasible. 

Proposed redevelopment area in Bethnal Green 

Any project of this nature applied to the East End of London 
could not possibly be contemplated in one step or within any specified 
number of years. The utilisation of 20| acres of Hackney Marsh 
for housing purposes, finally agreed upon in May, 1936, made it 
possible, however, to envisage a definite scheme of large scale 
redevelopment, and it was decided in December of that year to 
make a commencement with an area of about 46 acres in the northern 
part of Bethnal Green. This area was selected for the following 
reasons, apart from conditions necessary for compliance with the 
statutory provisions: — (1) the dwellings to be erected on the 20| 
acres of Hackney Marsh could be utilised for rehousing persons dis- 
placed from clearance and other areas in Hackney and other neighbour- 
ing boroughs, the sites of which could, in turn, be utilised for rehousing 
persons displaced ironi the proposed redevelopment area ; (2) the new 
dwellings to be erected on the proposed redevelopment area could 
be utilised for rehousing in connection with further redevelopment 
areas or clearance areas in more congested districts to the south ; 
(3) the redevelopment of the area could be considered either as part 
of a larger redevelopment scheme or as a complete scheme in itself 
without committing the Council to an extension on similar lines. 

The area, which is intersected from north to south by Cambridge- 
road and from cast to west by Hackney-road and Bishop’s-road, 
lies between the Regent’s Canal on the noith and Old Bethnal Green- 
road on the south. With the exception of the gas containers belonging 
to the Gas Light and Coke Company adjoining the canal, the area 
comprises all the property on the north side of Hackney-road and 
Bishop’s-road between the Council’s Dinmont estate (Teale-street 
area) on the west, and Wellington estate (Waterloo House site) in 
Bishop’s-road on the east. On the south side of Hackney-road and 
Bishop’s-road the area is bounded on the east by Russia-lane and 
on the west by Temple-street, the southern boundary being the 
Council’s Bethnal Green hospital and Old Bethnal Green-road. 

The portion of the area north of Hackney-road and Bishop’s-road 
is composed of a heterogeneous collection of dwelling houses, com- 
mercial properties and industry, whilst the portion of the area south 
of Hackney-road consists, in the main, of a large block of old resi- 
dential property with some infiltration of industry. The remaining 
portion of the area south of Bishop’s-road mainly comprises a block 
of residential property which, except for a number of unfit houses, 
is generally of a somewhat better character than the remainder of 
the residential property in the area. It may be possible for a number 
of the better conditioned houses in this part of the area to be acquired 
and utilised temporarily as rehousing accommodation in connection 
with the Council’s clearance operations and the abatement of over- 
crowding. The whole area is a typical example of the results of the 



28 


H O U S I N G 


uncontrolled development of London in the past. When the opera- 
tions now contemplated are completed, the area will form an integral 
part of an area of over 60 acres, including the Council’s existing 
housing development and Bethnal Green hospital, redeveloped on 
modern housing and town planning principles. 

The undermentioned properties are included in the proposed 


redevelopment area : — 

Houses — Working class ... ... ... ... ... 693 

Houses with shops on ground floor — Working class ... 134 

Premises, partly industrial or commercial and partly 

occupied by persons of the working classes ... ... 22 

Peabody-buildings — Eight blocks of dwellings — Working 

class 183 

Premises occu])ied by persons not of the working classes... 11 
Licensed premises ... ... ... ... ... ... 12 

Commercial premises (noii-residcntial) ... ... ... 54 

Factories and general industrial premises (non-residential) 59 
Mowlern-street school ... ... ... ... ... 1 

Roman Catholic Lithuanian Church ... ... ... 1 

Vacant houses (including 4 shops with living accommoda- 
tion over them ) ... ... 15 

Vacant industrial and commercial f)roperties 11 

Derelict properties ... ... ... ... ... ... 14 

Total 1,210 


A portion of the London and North Eastern Railway runs through 
the area on a viaduct, and Cambridge Heath station and various 
ancillary railway properties are situated in the area. 

The railway properties will not be materially affected by the 
redevelopment plan. Peabody-buildings in Minerva-street and 
Cambridge-circus can be retained and Mowlern-street school can 
also be retained or, if found necessary, rebuilt on an enlarged site. 

Of the working-class dwelling houses in the area, 503 (47-4 per 
cent.) are deemed to be unfit for human habitation and not capable 
at reasonable expense of being rendered so fit. There arc also two 
contiguous blocks of tenement dwellings comprising 56 houses 
which are not unfit but which are badly congested and overshadowed 
at the rear. 

In addition to overcrowding in houses which are unfit for human 
habitation or congested, 24 other houses which arc not unfit or con- 
gested are overcrowded on the standard laid down in the Act. 

It will be seen, therefore, that out of 1,061 working-class houses 
m the area, 583 are overcrowded, or deemed to be unfit for human 
habitation and not capable at reasonable expense of being rendered 
so fit, or are badly congested. This represents 55 per cent, of the 
working-class dwellings in the area compared with the statutory 
condition of at least one-third. 

The total population of the area is 5,471, of whom 5,382 are persons 
of the working classes (including 511 persons in Peabody-buildings), 



KotJuial Green (No. 1) Ucdevelopment Area ^ rh<,tograi,h hy Aerofutnii, lu 




REDEVELOPMENT AREAS 


29 


and 89 arc persons other than working-class* It is estimated that the 
redevelopment of the area will involve the displacement and rehousing 
of 4,700 persons of the working classes. 

The redevelopment of the area — Estimate of cost 

Having regard to the close connection between the treatment of a 
redevelopment area and town planning, it will be necessary to bear 
in mind from the commencement the correlation of the development 
entailed by the provision of adequate housing accommodation with 
the provisions of wider planning schemes for the district. The Minister 
of H(‘alth emphasises this aspect of the question in his memorandum 
on the redevelopment provisions of the Housing Act, 1935, in which 
he states that, once a local authority has decided that the conditions 
in a particular part of its district are such that it becomes the duty 
of the authority to declare a redevelopment area, the actual limits 
of that area will depend almost as much on planning considerations 
as on those of housing and finance! 

The redevelopment plan, which is now in course of preparation, 
will probably involve the removal of many of the factories and work- 
shops into a portion of the area to be set apart from the residential 
district for that purpose, and the widening of Cambridge-road, 
Old Bethnal Green-Road, Pritchard’s-road, Hackney-road and 
Bishop’s-road. Provision will be made for the erection of shops and 
commercial premises where required on the frontages of certain of 
the principal roads. Block dwellings will be erected by the Council 
on the portions of the area which will be available for housing 
purposes. 

It is probable that this method of redevelopment may prove to 
be more expensive than that involved by the procedure for dealing 
with clearance areas, but a redevelopment area is of a much more 
comprehensive character and the ensuing results will differ very 
materially from those achieved by the more limited scope of a 
clearance area and its reconstruction. 

On the information so far available, the estimate of the gross cost 
of acquisition and clearance involved in the present proposal, in- 
cluding disturbance to trade, disturbance of water mains, gas mains 
and other services, closing of streets, and all other incidental capital 
expenditure, with legal and professional charges, plus the cost of 
the principal road works, is £1,250,000. It is, however, anticipated 
that expenditure involved in acquiring land not required for the 
erection of dwellings will eventually be largely recouped. The cost 
of providing rehousing accommodation for the persons of the working 
classes to be displaced is estimated at £500,000, making a total 
estimated gross capital expenditure of £1,750,000. 

An aerial photograph showing the district affected by the scheme 
faces page 28. 



CHAPTER V 


OVERCROWDING 

In the past the density standard usually adopted as regards 
overcrowding has been that of “ more than two persons per room.’" 
This standard has not, however, been accepted as indicating the 
dividing line between good and bad housing conditions but has been 
’used rather as a standard for purposes of comparison. 


Trend and extent of overcrowding 

The standard of “ more than two persons })er room ” is that 
hitherto used by the Registrar-General in his Census reports and 
these reports supply useful information as to the trend and prevalence 
of overcrowding. From the reports the following table showing the 
extent of overcrowding in London since 1891 has been prepared : — 


l-4-rooin teneinenis All tont‘moiits 



Living more tlum 2 ]>er room 


Livin^f mo 

ir(‘ than 2 p'* 

r roon^ 

: Total 

population 

1 Nu tuber 
of persons' 

: i*ropor- 

JJearoaat. ^ V* 

( _) total 

’ oceu- 

pants 

Total 

population 
in private 
families 

Number 
of persons 

Dc'croase 

(--) 

l^ropor- 
tion of 
total 
occu- 
pants 

18»1 , 2,338,842 , 
1901 2,449,789 j 

1911 : 2,627,213 
1921 1 2,913,857 j 
1931 : 2,911,359 ; 

831,668 
i 726,096 
725,603 
661,933 
528,107 

Per cent. 
35-6 : 

- 105,572 29 6 

493 27-6 

- 63,670 22-7 

- 133,826 18-1 

^ Information not ua h 

4,252,402 758,438 

‘ 4,243,838 ' 683,498 1 

4,122,639 541,352 ! 

ilablo. 

74,940 
- 142,146 

Per edit. 

17-8 

16 1 

13 1 

1891-’ i 

1931 + 572.517 

i 1 

- 303,561 

- 303,561 -17-5 

j 

— 


- 


It appears from this table that overcrowding in London has been 
falling almost steadily in the last 40 years. There were, however, 
541,352 persons (comprising 89,600 families) living at a density of 
more than two persons per room in 1931. This is 13*1 per cent, of 
the total occupants of private dwellings (that is, excluding institutions, 
hotels, etc.) and compares with 6-9 per cent, in England and Wales 
as a whole. 

Whilst, however, there has been a fall in the number of persons 
living more than two per room in London since statistics under this 
head have been available, there was, in the period 1921-31, a con- 
siderable increase in the number living more than 3, 4, 5, etc., persons 
per room, that is, in the more pronounced forms of overcrow'ding. 




OVERC^ROWDING 


31 

The figures arc as follows : — 

1 

1 

Nun) her of 

personH in 

London 

Dopree? of Ox ercrowdiriK ! 

1 5>2 1 

1931 

Tticroase 
( + ) or 
Decrease 

( - ) 

Living more than 2 persons per room : 

(>83,498 

147,591 

541,3.52 

1.50,130 

142,146 
! 2,539 


30,904 

47,305 

i 16,401 


6,711 

16,251 

-f 9,540 


1,968 

6.423 

i 4,455 

jj ^ 

768 

2,343 

• 1,575 


376 

664 

288 

.. «. 

250 

151 

99 

!«} 

160 

11 

149 

»» ,, 

50 

— 

.50 


26 

-- 

26 


In readinf^ the figures in the above table it should be borne in mind 
that the numbers at any degree of overerowding include all those 
at higher degrees ; thus the number at more than three persons per 
room includes those at more than four persons per room and so with 
each succeeding degree. 

It is significant that this increase appears to have taken place in 
the period since the war and is, no doubt, a result mainly of the 
shortage of accommodation during that period. 

The Overcrowding Standard 

A special attack on the evil of overcrowding is now being made 
as a result of the passing of the Housing Act, 1935 (since re-enacted 
in the Housing Act, 1936). The Act lays down a new minimum 
standard of accommodation which is to be enforced when the housing 
situation in any district permits, and it provides for a survey to 
ascertain what families arc overcrowded and for the erection of the 
additional dwellings necessary to enable the overcrowding disclosed 
to be abated. The authorities for enforcing the Act in London are 
the Metropolitan Borough Councils, but the necessary new dwellings 
for abating overcrowding, so far as they are not provided by Metro- 
politan Borough Councils or otherwise, are to be provided by the 
London County Council. The City Corporation is a separate authority 
as regards the overcrowding provisions of the Act. 

The standard of overcrowding laid down in the Act in no case 
allows more than two persons a room and in most cases the maximum 
permitted number is less. Children under one year of age are, how- 
ever, not counted and children between the ages of one year and 
ten years count as half a person. The standard consists of two parts. 
The first provides that a dwelling house shall be deemed to be over- 
crowded if the accommodation is such that any two persons, being 
ten years old or more, of opposite sexes and not being persons living 
together as husband and wife, must sleep in the same room. The 
second fixes, in relation to the number and sizes of the rooms in any 
dwelling house, the maximum number of persons, irrespective of 
sex, who may be permitted to sleep in the house at one time. 



32 


HOUSING 


The maximum permitted number is ascertained by reference to 
the two following tables, and is the number obtained by the applica- 
tion of Table I or Table II, whichciur is the less : — 


Iable I S umber 

y umber of rooms of persons 

1 2 

2 3 


And two persons extra for 
50 square feet is counted. 


each additional room. No room under 


Table II 


Perm Hied n u mber 


Size of rooms of persons 

110 square feet or over ... ... ... ... ... 2 

90 square feet or over but under 110 scpiare feet ... li 

70 square feet or over but under 90 square feet ... 1 

50 square feet or over but under 70 square feet ... J 
Under 50 square feet ... ... ... ... ... Nil 


For the purposes of the application of these tables, a child under 
1 year of age is not counted and a child between the ages of 1 and 10 
years counts as half a person. Only rooms normally used in the 
locality for sleeping or living purposes are counted as rooms, so that 
sculleries, bathrooms, etc., are not taken into account in determining 
the permitted number of persons. Rooms occupied by a sub-tenant 
are regarded as a separate dwelling. 

The Minister of Health in an explanatory memorandum on the 
Act says, “ It is relevant to point out that this standard does not 
represent any ideal standard of housing, but the minimum which is 
in the view of Parliament tolerable while at the same time capable 
of immediate or early enforcement.” 


The Overcrowding Survey 

In the County of London the survey was carried out by the Metro- 

K olitan Borough Councils. The Council co-operated with the 
[etropolitan Borough Councils to ensure uniform and expeditious 
progress, and the survey was completed early in 1936. Under 
the Act, the County Council bears half the expenditure incurred 
by the Metropolitan Borough Councils in the employment of staff in 
connection with the survey and the enforcement of the overcrowding 
provisions of the Act. 

The survey fell into two stages, the first being a preliminary 
enumeration to ascertain the number of persons in each family, the 
number of children under 10 years of age, and the number of rooms 
occupied. This enumeration, which was made in respect of 651,878 
structurally separate houses occupied by 1,014,633 families showed, 
(i) the families which were overcrowded irrespective of the sizes of 
the rooms occupied, (ii) the families which were not overcrowded, 
and (iii) doubtful cases of overcrowding, i.e., those in which families 


O V E R C R O W D I X G 


33 


might be overcrowded when the sizes as well as the numbers of the 
rooms occupied were taken into consideration. Tlic second stage 
consisted of the measurement of the floor areas of the rooms and in 



London it was limited to the measurement of all the rooms in the 
houses in which a doubtful case or doubtful cases of overcrowding 
had been disclosed by the preliminary enumeration, with a view to 
ascertaining definitely whether the families occupying the rooms 




34 


H O U SING 


were or were not overcrowded on the standard laid down. This 
involved the measurement of the rooms in some 132,000 houses. 

The survey showed that of the 1,014,633 families in respect of 
which the Metropolitan Borough Councils obtained particulars, 
70,953 (about 7 per cent.) were living in overcrowded conditions, 
57,389 (about 5 • 7 per cent.) occupied accommodation of the minimum 
size required by the Act, and 886,291 (about 87*3 per cent.) had 
accommodation in excess of the standard. The statistical results of 
the survey in each Metropolitan Borough were published in a 
convenient form showing the distribution of the working class 
families in relation to the size of the family and the size, of the 
accommodation occupied in terms of the maximum number of 
persons permitted to occupy the dwelling under the Act.* 

The extent of the overcrowding in each Metropolitan Borough is 
given in the following table, “ equivalent persons ” including children 
under 10 years as half a person : — 


Metropolitan Borough 


Shoreditch 22,595 3,898 19,353 17*3 

Bethnal Green 26,093 3,894 20,219 14*9 

Finsbury 16,097 2,458 12,187 15*3 

Stepney 49,317 7,632 38,864 15*5 

Bermondsey 27,502 3,163 17,042 11*5 

l^oplar .‘]7,102 4,080 22,386 11*0 

Southwark 41,208 4,096 20,478 9*9 

St. Pancras 48,210 4,464 20,712 9*3 

Islington 89,428 6,757 31,941 7*6 

Holborn 5,858 700 3,226 11*9 

St. Marylebone 16,009 1,619 7,364 10*1 

Lambeth 76,924 3,881 19,798 5*0 

Battersea 40,863 1,968 10,371 4*8 

Camberwell ; 59,722 2,950 15,704 4*9 

Deptford j 29,724 1,317 6,604 4*4 

Greenwich 20,540 1,091 6,356 5*3 

Kensington 24,296 2,529 11,786 10*4 

Fulham i 38,882 1,795 9,323 4*6 

Hackney 60,899 2,651 13,600 4*4 

Hammersmith 35,286 1,728 8,182 4*9 

^ddington i 27,212 ; 1,998 8,879 7*3 

Chelsea | 8,496 749 3,661 8*8 

Stoke Newington i 12,149 462 2,193 3*8 

Westminster | 26,136 1,083 5,030 4*1 

Lewisham 35,182 1,057 6,728 ! 3*0 

Wandsworth 81,365 1,801 10,333 2*2 

Woolwich 39,621 : 683 3,606 1*7 

Hampstead 17,917 ; 449 2,063 2*5 

Total London (exclu i— 

dingCity of London) 1,014,633 j 70,963 857,989 7*0 

* Ov^rowding Survey, County of London, No. 8181 . 


j Xiimber of 


! Xu in her of 

I Proportion 

I’roportiun 
of estimated 

fainilien 

i )\ or- 

“ oqui\'a- 

1 of families 

total “ equi- 

included 

crovvdod 

lont per- 

i included 

valent 

iii ssurv'ey 


sons ” over- 

in survey 

persons ” in 


crowdetJ 

! ON ercrowdod 

the Borough 

- 

.... .. 

... 

Per cent. 

overcrowded 

Per cent. 

22,595 

3,898 

19,353 

17*3 

23-6 

26,093 

3,894 

20,219 

14*9 

21*7 

16,097 

2,458 

12,187 

15*3 

20-5 

49,317 

7,632 

38,864 

15*5 

19-7 

27,502 

3,163 

17,042 

11*5 

17*8 

37,102 

4,080 

22,386 

11*0 

16*8 

41,208 

4,096 

20,478 

9*9 

14 0 

48,210 

4,464 

20,712 

9*3 

11-8 

89,428 

6,757 

31,941 

7*6 

11-2 

5,858 

700 

3,226 

11*9 

9-4 

16,009 

1,619 

7,364 

10*1 

8-4 

76,924 

3,881 

19,798 

5*0 

7-5 

40,863 

1,968 

10,371 

4*8 

7 4 

; 59,722 

2,950 

15,704 

4*9 

71 

1 29,724 

1,317 

6,604 

4*4 

71 

20,540 

1,091 

6,356 

5*3 

71 

24,296 

2,529 

11,786 

10*4 

J 7 0 

i 38,882 

1,795 

9,323 

4*6 

1 6*9 

60,899 

2,651 

13,600 

4*4 

6-9 • 

35,286 

1,728 

8,182 

4*9 

1 

6-8 

27,212 ; 

1,998 

8,879 : 

1 

7*3 j 

6-7 

8,496 

749 

3,661 

8*8 i 

6-6 

12,149 

462 

2,193 

3*8 i 

4-6 

26,136 

1,083 

5,030 

4*1 

4-2 

35,182 

1,057 

6,728 ! 

3*0 

3-3 

81,365 

1,801 

10,333 

2*2 

3*2 

39,621 I 

683 

3,606 

1*7 

2-7 

17,917 ; 

449 

2,063 

2*5 

2-4 

1,014,638 \ 

70,963 

357,989 

7*0 

9*1 



OVERCROWDING 35 


In addition, there were 65 overcrowded families in the City of 
London. 

Of the total of 70,953 overerowded families, 287 were overcrowded 
by reason only of the requirement for separating the sexes. 

Owing to the standard laid down by the Act for determining the 
maximum permitted number of persons taking into account the 
sizes as well as the numbers of rooms occupied, it is not possible, 
from the statistical returns of the survey, to obtain a precise indication 
of the numbers of rooms in the dwellings of various sizes which are 
overcrowded. A close approximation to the position can, however, 
be given, but some dwellings with very small rooms may be included 
as having one room less than the actual number. In the following 
table the number of overcrowded families living in dwellings of the 
various sizes and the number of such families living at densities of 
more than 2, 3, 4, etc., “ equivalent persons ” a room is given : — 



Nuinbor of ovorcrowdod faniilieH occiipyint; 

Total 

over- 


dwellings consistinc of approximately- 

— 


1 room j 

2 rooms 

3 rooms 

4 rooms 1 5 or more 

1 rooms 

crowded 

fairiilies 

Total overcrowded 
more than - 

9,020 

33,532 

20,308 

7,183 

850 

70,953 

2 '• equivalent per- 







sons ” a room 

(»,722 

11,570 

0,059 

2,150 

200 

27,307 


1,274 

1,015 

189 

7 


3,085 

4 

300 

140 

3 

— 

— 

509 

5 

120 

7 

— 

— 

— 

127 


37 

■— ; 

— 


— 

37 


10 



— i 


10 


In reading the figures in the above table, as with the Census 
figures above, it should be borne in mind that the numbers at more 
than 2 “ equivalent persons ” a room include those at more than 3 
equivalent persons ” a room and so with each succeeding degree. 
With regard to the size of the overcrowded families, the largest 
group consisted of 4 “ equivalent persons,” of which size there were 
12,064 families out of a total of 70,953, the next in order being 
l^’1 1^0 families of 3| “ equivalent persons ” and 8,086 families of 
6 equivalent persons.” 


Nezv dwellings required to abate overcrowding 

The Metropolitan Borough Councils’ estimates of the numbers of 
new houses required to abate the overcrowding in their Boroughs 
have been arrived at after allowing for the rehousing of some of the 
overcrowded families in dwellings to be vacated by other overcrowded 
^milies, for vacant dwellings, and for overcrowded families who will 
be provided with the accommodation they require by rehousing under 
the Housing Act, 1930, in connection with clearance schemes, the 
demolition of unhealthy houses, etc. The estimates show that in 
order to abate the overcrowding a total of 23,780 dwellings are 


D 



86 


HOUSING 


required, the numbers of dwellings of the various sizes, on the 
rehousing standard of persons a room, being as follows : — 


Size of 
dwelling — 
Rooms 

a 

4 

5 
(> 

7 

8 
9 

10 


Number of 
dwellings 

10,029 

5,386 

5,903 

1,241 

948 

206 

64 

3 


23,780 


There are, however, so niany factors affecting the rehousing of 
overcrowded families in London that it is possible that the numbers 
of dwellings which will actually have to be provided will differ 
considerably from the estimates. 

Under the Act, it is the duty of the London County Council, unless 
it is satisfied that the number of new dwellings required for the 
County (apart from the City) will be otherwise provided, to prepare 
and submit to the Minister of Health proposals for the provision 
thereof. Some of the Metropolitan Borough Councils propose 
themselves to provide the whole or part of the additional accommo- 
dation required for their Boroughs, but the bulk of the dwellings 
to be erected so that overcrowding in London can be abated will be 
provided by the London County Council. 

In preparing the actual proposals for the erection of dwellings it 
will be necessary for the County Council to take into account various 
factors likely to affect the estimates, e.g., the difficulty of envisaging 
how existing accommodation will be re-let as the abatement of 
overcrowding proceeds ; the possibility of some overcrowding being 
abated in the ordinary course of movement of population by re- 
distribution of dwellings ; the probability that the fall in overcrowding 
in the County of London which has been taking place since 1891 
will continue ; the difficulty of providing the necessary accommoda- 
tion for families with limited means ; the effect of the Rent Restriction 
Acts in restricting normal movement of families ; and the possibility 
of the overcrowding standard being raised. It must be remembered 
also that the population of the County of London is decreasing and 
that there is a possibility of a further decline. 

The new accommodation for the abatement of overcrowding may 
be provided either in block dwellings or houses. Owing, however, 
to the fact that the County of London is almost fully developed, and 
building sites are very expensive, the accommodation must, except 
in one or two outlying boroughs, usually take the form of block 
dwellings. The provision of dwellings for the abatement of over- 
crowding is proceeding side by side with the erection of dwellings 
for slum clearance purposes, and although precedence is being given 
to the latter, it will be possible to provide during the next few years 


OVERCROWDING 


87 


in the various districts a substantial amount of accommodation for 
the relief of overcrowding. 

Accommodation for about 3,550 persons has already been 
allocated for the relief of overcrowding on sites as follows : — 

Number of flats 

Oaklands estate, Wandsworth ... 185 

Honor Oak estate, Lewisham ... 378 

Thornhill estate, Greenwich ... 108 

East Dulwich estate ... ... 195 

The question of allocating for relief of overcrowding other blocks 
of dwellings now in course of erection will be considered before 
the dwellings are completed. 

Fixing of Appointed Days 

The operation of the overcrowding provisions of the Housing Act, 
1935, depends on the fixing of appointed days, after which over- 
crowding may constitute an offence. 

In some Metropolitan Boroughs where there is a comparatively 
small amount of overcrowding, and where sufficient dwellings to enable 
a commencement to be made in abating overcrowding are likely 
to be available in the near future, the appointed day as from which 
overcrowding may become an offence has been fixed at 1st January, 
1937. These Boroughs are Kensington, Lewisham, Stoke Newington, 
Wandsworth, Westminster and Woolwich. For the Metropolitan 
Boroughs of Battersea, Camberwell, Chelsea, Deptford, Fulham, 
Greenwich, Hackney, Hammersmith and Lambeth, the date fixed is 1st 
July, 1937, and for Hampstead, Holborn, Paddington, St. Marylebone, 
St. Pancras and Southwark, the date proposed is 1st January, 1938 ; 
but as regards the remaining seven Metropolitan Boroughs — 
Bermondsey, Bethnal Green, Finsbury, Islington, Poplar, Shoreditch 
and Stepney — it is not yet considered possible, owing to special 
difficulties, to suggest any definite dates for appointed days. The 
appointed day for the City of London has been fixed at 1st January, 
1937. The diagram on page 33 indicates the areas affected by the 
fixation of the appointed days. 


CHAPTER VI 

DEVELOPMENT OF ESTATES BY THE ERECTION OF 
BLOCK DWELLINGS 

Lay-out 

Sites for development by means of block dwellings comprise 
clearance areas and other sites acquired for the purpose. These 
sites are attended by conditions not usually obtaining in the develop- 
ment of large tracts of open land such as sites for cottage estates. 

By building blocks of dwellings five storeys high it is generally 
possible, except in the case of exceptionally overcrowded districts, 
to provide on the same area as that from which the old buildings 
have been cleared new housing accommodation for approximately 
as many persons as those displaced by the clearance and at the 
same time to leave ample space about the buildings for light and 
air as well as for necessary courtyards. If cottages were built, only 
a portion of the rehousing accommodation could be provided on the 
area, and consequently, in order to supply the deficiency, a number 
of houses would have to be built elsewhere involving additional cost 
for land. In cases, too, where the conditions are that persons must 
of necessity live near their employment, the loss of housing accom- 
modation on the area which would result from cottage development 
would be of serious consequence. Moreover, buildings mostly 
connected with industry in the vicinity of clearance areas arc usually 
of much greater height than cottages ; and so cottages, and more 
particularly those on the borders of the area, would be seriously 
overshadowed. 

The lay-out is largely controlknl by such fectors as the orientation 
of the main axis of the site, the irregularity of its boundaries, and the 
character and height of adjoining j)ropcrty. The first essentials of 
a satisfactory lay-out are adequate light and air abotit the buildings 
and the securing of sunlight to as many of the rooms as possible. 
Reference to the maps of various estates before and after clearance 
will show that the new buildings occupy a much smaller proportion 
of the land than did the old houses, and the tenants have the advan- 
tages of more space, light and air. Subject to the height of adjoining 
buildings, it is usual to site the blocks facing the streets so as to 
allow for a grass forecourt of not less than 15 feet and thus to obtain 
reasonable privacy for the tenants. The disposition of the blocks 
to secure proper light and air usually provides adequate space in 
the yards for communication and playground. In the larger estates, 
however^ special spaces are set aside as playgrounds, to be fitted 
with swings and other play apparatus for the children. 

The foi^egoing factors controlling lay-out have a direct bearing 
on the density of development, which may vary from about 45 dwell- 
ings to the acre on a site having restricting conditions to, say, 65 
dwellings to ^he acre where the site conditions are particularly 
favourable. 

\ Architectural treatment 

In the architectural treatment of the buildings the aim has been 
to maintain an appearance of domesticity whilst keeping within 
the bounds of econbmy. 


( 38 ) 



DEVELOPMENT BY BLOCK DWELLINGS 39 


As to the materials which are used : the walls are of solid brick- 
work in hard mortar, the floors of steel and concrete, finished in 
the living rooms and bedrooms with boards, and elsewhere with a 
cement surface ; the principal staircases are of concrete, the par- 
titions are of concrete slabs, and the roofs are generally of timber 
covered with red tiles. Thus the floors and staircases are of solid fire- 
resisting material, and in the construction generally care has been 
taken to avoid any eavities and crevices which might afford a 
harbour for vermin. Safety of egress in case of fire is also provided 
for in the planning. 

The normal time for the erection of a five-storey building may be 
taken as from nine to twelve months. 

Types of plans — 1934 types 

Practically the whole of the accommodation provided in block 
dwellings is by self-contained flats, usually in buildings of five 
storeys, the large majority of which are of the balcony access type. 
There are four type plans, differing^ slightly from each other, now 
in general use by the Council, which were designed in 1934. These 
type plans are illustrated on pages 40 and 41. The living rooms and 
the majority of the bedrooms are ranged along the side of the building 
which has the better aspect, and on the other side are placed the 
kitchens, domestic oflices, and a few bedrooms, and the access bal- 
conies from which each flat above the ground floor is entered. Each 
flat extends from the front to the back of the building and thus 
through ventilation is ensured. 

The access balconies are generally approached by common stair- 
cases and give direct access to dwellings on all floors. 

All rooms are eight feet six inches high, but some dwellings were 
built as a special measure with rooms eight feet from floor to ceiling. 
The average areas of the rooms arc as follows : — 

1934 (1 and 2) types — Living rooms ... 150 square feet. 

First bedrooms ... 110 ,, 

Other bedrooms ... 100 

1934 (3 and 4) types — Living rooms ... 160 

First bedrooms ... 120 ,, 

Other bedrooms ... 100 „ 

The overall areas of the flats arc shown on the type plans. Each 
dwelling contains an entrance lobby from which are approached a 
living room ; one, two, three or four bedrooms, according to the 
size of the dwelling ; a kitchen ; a bathroom and a water-closet. 
Sometimes, to meet exigencies of planning, one bedroom opens off 
a living room. 

Apart from the differences in the sizes of the rooms the variations 
in the four 1934 (1, 2, 3 and 4) types are as follows : — 

No. 1 Type. — A copper is fixed in each kitchen, and, alongside, 
a pump for supplying hot water to the bath, which is in a separate 
bathroom. Drying-rooms are provided on the first and third floors 
in proportion to the number of tenements in a block. A cooking 
range is provided in the living room, and a gas cooker in the kitchen. 
The living room also contains the food cupboard and dresser. One 
bedroom is fitted with a wardrobe cupboard. 



OB-YIWC (LOOM OM 


40 


HOUSING 



EmP. Wheeler, Architect to the Council. 




DEVELOPMENT BY BLOCK DWELLINGS 41 









42 


HOUSING 


No. 2 Type. — Drying-rooms are omitted as also coppers and 
pumps from the kitchens. Instead, washhouses are provided at 
the rate of one to every three tenements. The washhouse is fitted with 
a washing trough, copper and table. A water heater fixed in the 
bathroom provides hot water for the bath. Otherwise the type is 
similar to Type No. 1. 

No. 3 Type. — copper is fixed in each kitclien while drying- 
rooms are provided on the first and third floors in proportion to 
the number of tenements. A multi -point gas water-heater fixed 
in the kitchen, provides hot water for the bath, lavatory basin and 
sink. An open fire is provided in the living room and a gas cooker in 
the kitchen. A larder and dresser are placed in the kitchen and a 
wardrobe cupboard in one bedroom. The rooms are slightly greater 
in area than in Type No. 1 or No. 2. 

No. 4 Type. — No coppers are fixed in the tenements and drying- 
rooms are omitted. Instead, washhouses are provided at the 
rate of one to every three tenements. The washhouse is fitted 
with a washing trough, a gas copper and a table. Otherwise this 
type is similar to Type No. 3. 

Each living room has a coal fire and one bedroom in every flat has 
a coal fire and a point for a gas fire. In the other bedrooms jflugs 
for electric fires are provided. 

New type plans 

It has appeared desirable for some time that newer methods of 
planning for flats should be investigated with a view to bringing 





DEVELOPMENT BY BLOCK DWELLINGS 43 






44 


HOUSING 



K. P. Wheeler^ ArchUect to the Council 

NEW TYPE OF PLAN 

AXONOMETRIC VIEW OF A THREE-ROOM DWELLING 



DEVELOPMENT BY BLOCK DWELLINGS 








46 


HOUSING 


the treatment of them more to accord with the modern outlook in 
housing provision. Accordingly new type plans have recently been 
prepared embodying certain improvements, and these plans will 
be utilised on a limited scale in conjunction with the 1934 types. 

The new type plans are based on the principle of staircase access 
as opposed to balcony access, which has for many years been univer- 
sally adopted by the Council. Adoption of the former principle 
will obviate certain disadvantages which attach to block dwellings 
planned with balcony access, namely, the effect on internal lighting 
and obstruction of outlook that results from balconies and the 
shadows thrown thereby over one side of the block, and certain 
drawbacks as regards lack of privacy to individual flats. 

Apart- from the difference in the method of access, the main 
differences betw^een the existing types and that now referred to are : 

(i) except in the case of one-room and two-room dwellings, each 
dwelling will have a private balcony ; and (ii) a dust chute is to be 
provided to serve 8 to 12 dwellings instead of 30 dwellings as at 
present, one chute being provided to each staircase. 

The internal arrangement of the dwellings themselves has been 
carefully considered with a view to producing a convenient and 
effective working arrangement for the dwellings, combined with 
due regard to such amenity conditions, access of sunshine, and 
attractiveness of outlook as it may be possible to associate with the 
more practical factors affecting them. 

The spacing of the staircases has been so arranged as to afford an 
area that admits of the planning of one, two, three, four and five- 
room dwellings on an interchangeable basis within the unit of stair- 
case spacing referred to. Double entrance doors in a modern 
treatment and largely glazed are to be provided at the foot of each 
staircase, leading into a roomy and well-lighted vestibule beneath 
the projecting landings of the staircases. The inner landings of the 
staircase afford access to two dwellings of the larger type, and to 
three where provision is made to include the smaller one-room and 
two-room dwellings. The large outer landings will be well lighted 
and ventilated and being partly in a modern metal treatment will, 
in association with the walling and the piers enclosing the dust 
chutes, give added architectural interest to that side of each block. 

The accommodation to be provided in the various sized dwellings 
is approximately as follows : — 

One-room dwelling — bed-sitting room with kitchen recess, etc. 
(155 square feet), combined bathroom and water-closet, various 
cupboards, entrance hall, etc. 

Two-rbom dwelling — living room with kitchen recess, etc. (155 
square fe^t), bathroom, cupboards, hall, etc., as for one-room 
dwelling, and bedroom (110 square feet). 

Three-rodm dwelling — living room (160 square feet) with fitted 
kitchen (75 ^uare feet), en suite, and private balcony, bedroom 
(120 square feet), bedroom (110 square feet), separate bathroom 
and water-closet, cupboards, etc. 

\ 




DEVELOPMENT BY BLOCK DWELLINGS 47 


Four-room dwelling — living room, kitchen and balcony, one 
bedroom (120 square feet), two bedrooms (110 square feet each), 
separate bathroom and water-closet, etc., as for three-room 
dwelling. 

Five-room dwelling — living room, kitchen and balcony, bed- 
room (120 square feet), tw^o bedrooms (110 square feet each), one 
bedroom (80 square feet), separate bathroom and water-closet, 
cupboards, etc., as above. 

The sizes of the various rooms and the overall areas in square feet 
of the dwellings will be 

Number of rooms : — 



7\vo 

Three 

Four 

Five 

Living room 

155 

160 

160 

160 

First bedroom 

no 

120 

120 

120 

Second bedroom ... 


no 

no 

no 

Third bedroom 




no 

no 

Fourtii bedroom ... 

- 





80 

Kitchen 

Ihithrooin, water 

- 

75 

75 

75 

closet, ete. 

50 

76 

76 

90 

Private balconie.s ... 

— 

ao 

30 

30 

Overall area 

:K)0 

630 

755 

875 


The overall areas for both new and existing types do not include 
the area occupied by staircases and access balconies. The rooms 
will be of a height of 8 feet 6 inches from floor to ceiling. 

Pavement liglits are to be inserted in the balcony floors to afford 
as much light as possible to the kitchens of dwellings below the private 
balconies, to which it is proposed to provide a partly solid and partly 
open enclosure. 

Except in one-room and two-room dwellings, the water-closet 
is to be situated in a separate compartment adjacent to the 
bathroom as in the 1934 types and not in the bathroom. In view of 
the small number of persons who can occupy a one or two-room 
dwelling, it is not so essential that the water-closet should be in a 
separate compartment from the bath as in the case of the larger 
dwellings, and by its incorporation in the bathroom more space is 
made available for the adjoining living room and its kitchen recess. 
In the smaller dwellings several cupboards are provided in addition 
to the larder, and linen and fuel stores, wdiile the larger dwellings 
have a proportionately increased provision in this respect. 

The dwellings generally will be provided with gas water-heaters, 
although it is intended to instal both gas water-heaters and circulating 
hot water systems in a certain number of dwellings as an experiment. 

In two of the existing types of block dwellings two washhouses are 
usually provided on each floor, i.e., one washhouse to three dwellings, 
thus allowing each tenant two clear days’ occupation a week. In 
the new types larger accommodation for washing and drying will be 
provided. In five-storey blocks a two-room dwelling is omitted 
from the top floor, and in four-storey blocks a one-room dwelling 
is omitted to provide space for this amenity. 














lABARD STlihhl VRE\— \ILA\, Bll ORI C LI \RA\C T, 01 
^MCKIIAM n \C1 



TABARD STREET AREA — VIEW, BEl ORP. CLEARANCE, OF 
PQX’S BUILDINGS 


DEVELOPMENT BY BLOCK DWELLINGS 55 


Tabard-street, from which the area took its name, was the very 
ancient highway leading out from Southwark into the open country. 
Traditionally it was held to be a Roman road, and the discovery 
of Roman skulls and pottery on either side of it during the excavations 
for the new buildings was held to confirm this. 

The street was formerly Kent-street and was part of the route 
used by pilgrims and others between London and Canterbury and 
made famous by Chaucer in his Canterbury Tales. The Tabard 
Inn, from which the pilgrims started, was situated 500 or 600 
yards away on the east side of Borough Iligh-street, a little to the 
south of its junction with St. Thomas’s-street. The site is marked 
by the present Talbot-yard, Talbot being a name which was sub- 
stituted for the original Tabard as early as the 16th century. The 
house was burnt down in the great Southwark fire in 1676 and the 
new building, erected in 1681, was demolished about 1875. 

The names of the blocks of dwellings, with the exception of Strood 
House, have been suggested by references in the Canterbury Tales 
or by names of places on the pilgrims’ route. Strood House stands 
opposite Rochester House, and the name of the former was suggested 
by the mutual relation between the towns of Strood and Rochester, 
on opposite sides of the River Medway. 

Pilgrimage-street, Manciple-street, Pardoner-street and Tabard- 
street, it will l)e seeji, enclose a large quadrangular tract of land. 
Buildings have been erected along the frontages to Manciple-street 
and Pardoner street, but the other two frontag(‘s have been left open 
to the street, and the whole of the unbuilt-on land, amounting to 
5 acres, provides the open space enjoined by the Order confirming 
the scheme. 

In April, 1934, an oj)])ortunity occurred to acquire a large factory 
and other property between Manciple-street and Long-lane, situated 
in the Borough of Bermondsey, adjoining the Tabard Garden estate. 
The factory had been used for many years as a jam factory, but 
owing to a reorganisation of Plaistowe and Company, Limited, and 
Crosse & Blackwell, Limited, it was no longer required for the purpose. 
Adjacent to the factory were one or two other smaller factories and 
a number of old houses. The houses were found to be unfit and to 
constitute seve ral clearance areas which were declared by the Council 
in November, 1934. The whole of the property, including both 
factories and clearance areas, was acquired by the Council within 
the next few months, and by the autumn of 1935 the major portion 
of the site had been cleared. The site, known as the Minto-street 
site, has an area of about 5| acres, and on this it was decided 
to erect nine blocks containing 358 dwellings with 1,104 rooms. 
Apart from the erection of housing accommodation, provision was 
made for the construction of a new street extension to link up 
Pardoner- street with Weston-street, together with the widening of 
this latter street and Long-lane. 

In September, 1935, work was commenced on seven blocks by 
Higgs and Hill, Limited, and is now practically complete, the cost 
being estimated at £128,300. In June, 1936, the contract was 


56 


HOUSING 


extended to include the construction of five lock-up shops and three 
workshops and four barrow sheds at a cost of and these were 

completed in November, 1936. 

In 1930 the Council purchased 116 houses, covering about 2i acres 
of the intervening space between the two portions of the Tabard 
Garden area. The houses were used for some years for temporary 
rehousing purposes, but having become definitely unfit, were declared 
by the* Council in May, 1936, to constitute a clearance area, which 
was known as the Law-street area. 

It is ])ro[)osed to erect on the site five blocks containing 133 
dwe llings at an estimated cost of £72,600. and it is anticipated that 
building work will commenee early in 1937. 

The* whole, when eompkded, will form one homogeneous housing 
estate‘ of about 21 acres, of which 5 acres form an open space. It 
is situated in the Metropolitan Boroughs of Southwark and Ber- 
mondsey. The lay-out comprises 25 blocks containing 1,007 
dwellings with 3,041 rooms. In addition there are 12 lock-up 
shops (3 witli accommodation over), 15 worksliops, 5 perambulator 
sheds, 10 harrow sheds, and two large op(m. sheds for lorries. The 
total estimated cost of the development of the estate, apart from 
the cost of acquisition and clearance of the land, is £555,000. Plans 
and photogra])hs of the estate are given on i)ages 50 to 54. 

China Walk Estate 

The China-walk, etc., clearance scheme formulated by the Council 
in 1925 included four areas — China-walk, Lambeth ; Hankey-place, 
Southwark ; Hatfield-strect, Southwark, and Wyndham-road, 
Camberwell. The scheme was confirmed with some minor modifica- 
tions in 1927, and in 1928 building work was able to proceed on the 
China-walk area. 

The accommodation on Chiiia-walk estate, which has an area of 
about five acres, is provided in six blocks and comprises a total of 283 
dwellings containing 936 rooms. Ten barrow sheds, five workshops 
and an estate workshop are also included. Building operations 
were commenced in August, 1928, by A. T. Rowley, Limited, on 
the three blocks forming a quadrangle facing Walnut Tree-walk, and 
building proceeded practically continuously until February, 1934, at 
which date the estate was completed. The two wings of the large 
block on the Kennington-road frontage and the block to the north of 
the estate were built by R. J. Rowley, Limited. The total estimated 
cost of building was about £163,000. 

The large block (Wedgwood House) has been designed so as to 
secure a large quadrangular garden space about 95 feet wide and 
300 feet long with its central part extended eastward along the 
axial line of the plan to the main frontage on Kennington-road. 
By this arrangement the inner part of the group of buildings has 
been opened out to view from the main road ; an agreeable outlook 
is obtained from the windows of the habitable rooms ; and the 
general amenities of the district have been greatly improved. 



CHINA WALK ESTATE — QUADRANGLE, WEDGWOOD HOUSE 





chiVa walk akea— before clearance 

\ 



DEVELOPMENT BY BLOCK DWELLINGS 


59 



CHINA WALK ESTATE 






(’HINA WALK AREA -VIKW, BEFORE CLEARANCE, OF 
KARL PLACE 




DEVELOPMENT BY BLOCK DWELLINGS 61 



CHINA WALK LSTATK — WILDGWOOD llOITSE, VIEW THROUGH 
Ql^ADRANGLE 


The estate is named alter the official name of the improvement 
scheme and famous names associated with tlie manufacture of 
ehinaw^are Iiave been chosen for the buildings. 

Illustrations of the China-w^alk area before clearance and of the 
estate after nronstruction are ^jmu on pa^^es 58, 59 and GO, and of 
Wedgwood House on pa^es ,57 and 01. 

Comber Estate 

The WMidham-road area was part of the China -w alk, etc., sclicme. 
Additional lands were acquired, and Comber estate comprise'^ 
the reconstruction of the Wyndham-road area and the redcveloj>ment 
of adjoining lands making a total area of about six acres. 

The name Comber estate lias been selected because Thomas 
Comber, one of the pioneers of the C\)ngo, who was frequently 
interviewed by Stanley, was born in Clarendon-street, now Councillor- 
street, Camberwell, which is within a stone’s throw of Comber-grove 
on the estate. The buildings on the estate have been named aftei 
famous African travellers. 

Building was commenced in September, 1927, and proceeded 
continuously until the completion of the estate in April, 1982. The 
total accommodation comprises 325 dwellings containing 990 rooms 
















WYNDHAM ROAD AREA — VIEW, BEFORE CLEARANCE, OF 
46 , WYNDHAM ROAD 



WYNDHAM ROAD AREA — VIEW, BEFORE CLEARANCE, OF 

Mathew’s buildings 




66 


HOUSING 



COMBER ESTATE— LIVINGSTONE HOUSE 


and, in addition, there arc 5 lock-up sliops, workshop and stores. 
The contractors were A. T. Rowley, Limited, R. J. Rowley, Limited, 
and Unit Construction Company, Limited, and certain of the 
dwellings liave a reduced standard of finish for letting at a slightly 
lower rent. 

A plan of the Wyndhain-road area is given on page 62, Comber 
estate on page 63, two views of the area before clearance on page 64 
and illustrations of Moffat and Livingstone Houses on pages 65 and 66. 


Whitmore Estate 

The Whitmore-estate, Shoreditch, has been formed on the site of 
the Ware-street area of about 8| acres, which was the subject of a 
clearance scheme confirmed in 1922. The estate is situated in the 
Whitmore ward of the Metropolitan Borough of Shoreditch, which 
ward takes its name from Sir George Whitmore who was Lord Mayor 
of London in 1654. The various blocks have been given names con- 
nected with archery, which was formerly practised in the neigh- 
bourhood. 

The first block was commenced at the end of 1924 and, except 
for an interval from February, 1934, until July, 1985, work has 
proceeded continuously, the last block being now under construction. 
The total accommodation is in 16 blocks, comprising 538 dwellings 
containing 1,528 rooms, and there are also six lock-up shops. Six 





WARE STREET AREA BEFORE CLEARANCE 


blocks known as Horner and Stringer houses are four storeys in height 
and are of a simplified type of planning, one block (Kempton House) 
is of the modified type for letting at low rents and four storeys high, 
and the last block (now under construction) is of the 1934 (No. 1) type 
of planning. The remaining dwellings are of the normal pre-1934 
rehousing type. The various contractors were R. Woollaston and 
Company, Rowley Brothers, Limited, Henry Boot and Sons, Limited, 
A. E. Symes,, Limited, Gee, Walker and Slater, Limited, Commercial 
Structures, Lirpited, and A. T. Rowley (London), Limited. The total 
estimated cost^f the development is £265,800. 

A plan of the Ware-street area before clearance is reproduced 
above, and a lay-out of Whitmore estate on page 69. Other illustra- 
tions are on pages 67 and 70. 






WHITMORE ESTATE 


East Hill Estate 

East Hill estate was formerly the site of St. Peter’s Hospital, 
otherwise known as the Fishmongers’ Almshouses in East Hill, 
Wandsworth. It has an area of about 8 aeres and is conveniently 
situated in an inner district of London about 150 yards from 
Wandsworth Common. It was acquired by the Council in 1923 for 
the purpose of providing rehousing accommodation in connection 
with schemes for the clearance of unhealthy areas. At that time 
the execution of the Council’s programme was severely hampered 
by the lack of accommodation for persons who would be displaced 
by the demolition of the old houses in the slum areas, and this site 
was the first of a number acquired with the object of meeting the 
difficulty. The whole of the inmates had been removed by the 
^shmongers’ Company to other accommodation prior to purchase and 
there was therefore no population to be disturbed by its develop- 





WAEE STREET AREA ^VIEW, BEFORE CLEARANCE, OF BARRETTS 

BUILDINGS 






EAST HILL ESTATE 







KAST HILL estate— COURTYAKD, NEWLYN HOUSE 





74 


HOUSING 


The construction of the roads and sewers was carried out between 
July, 1924, and March, 1925. The contractors for the whole of the 
estate were J. E. Billings and Company, Limited ; work was com- 
menced in February, 1925, and proceeded practically continuously 
until the completion of the estate in June, 1929. 

The total accommodation provided, including the superintendent’s 
quarters, was 524 dwellings containing 1,627 rooms and a certain 
number were planned so that tenants could accommodate a lodger. 

The total estimated cost of the building work was about £304,500, 
and seven shops were provided on the estate. 

Towards the end of 1935 the Didcot-street area adjoining the 
estate was cleared, and a block containing 77 dwellings with 236 
rooms of 1934 (1 and 2) type has been erected by Gee, Walker and 
Slater, Limited, and forms part of the East Hill estate. This 
block was completed in December, 1936, and cost about £33,600. 

The accommodation of the whole estate consists of 14 blocks, 
containing 601 dwellings with 1,863 rooms, 7 shops, an estate office 
and workshops. 

The names chosen for the various buildings are those of English 
ports associated with the fishing industry. They commemorate the 
previous ownership of the site by the Fishmongers’ Company. The 
roads on the estate bear the names of certain Huguenots who lie 
buried in the neighbouring Huguenot burial ground. 

A lay-out plan is shown on page 71 and two views of Newlyn 
House on pages 72 and 73. 

Hughes Fields Estate 

A scheme was made in 1925 and confirmed in 1926 for the clearance 
of an area known as the Watergate-street area, Deptford and 
Greenwich, adjoining Hughes Fields estate, which was constructed 
by the Council between 1895 and 1904. The area is about 7| acres 
and the planning was largely governed by the presence of the 
cottages and block dwellings erected by the Council between 1895 
and 1904, for it was obviously desirable to bring the new buildings 
and the old together in such a way as would give unity to the whole 
CvState. Another feature taken into account was the disused burial 
ground north of Wellington-street, now pleasantly laid out as a 
recreation ground. 

The first blocks were commenced in October, 1926, and except 
for a break from August, 1931, to August, 1932, building proceeded 
continuously until the last block was completed in August, 1936. 

With the exception of the last block, which is of the 1934 type, 
the dwellings are of the normal type of planning employed prior 
to the introduction of the 1934 type, but the five blocks known 
as Watergate Houses are only three storeys high instead of the 
usual five storeys. 

The total accommodation on the estate, including the pre-war 
portion, is 668 dwellings containing 1,953 rooms. There are also a 





WATERGATE STREET AREA — ^VIEW, BEFORE CLEARANCE, OF 

Mary’s place 



WATERGATE STREET AREA — BEFORE CLEARANCE 







HUGHES FIELDS ESTATE 








DEVELOPMENT BY BLOCK DWELLINGS 79 



WATERGATE STREET AREA — ^VIEW, BEFORE CLEARANCE, OF 


DEPTFORD GREEN 



80 


HOUSING 


superintendent’s house, six lock-up shops, estate office, etc., and three 
shops in a self-contained block with dwelling accommodation over. 
The total estimated cost of the post-war development is £223,000. 
The several building contractors were — ^J. E. Billings and Company, 
Limited ; R. J. Rowley, Limited ; Unit Construction Company, 
Limited ; Henry Boot and Sons, Limited ; and A. E. Symes, Limited. 

In addition to the housing development, provision has been made 
for an extension of the Hughes Fields School, and for the enlargement 
of the recreation ground and children’s playground in Butcher’s- 
row as well as the recreation ground in Wellington-street previously 
mentioned. Allotments have also been provided in Watcrgatc- 
street for the use of the tenants on the estate. 

A ])lan of the Watergate-street area before clearance is reproduced 
on page 76, a plan of Hughes Fields estate on pagi^ 77 and other 
illustrations on pages 75, 78 and 79. 

OssuLSTON Estate 

The scheme for the clearance and reconstruction of the Ossulston- 
street area, St. Pancras (about 8 acres), was confirmed in April, 1926. 

The area naturally divides itself into three sections : the northern 
between Harnpden-street and Phoenix-street ; the central between 
Phoenix-street and Christ Church ; and the southern between Christ 
Church and Weir’s-passage. One block of dwellings has been built 
on each of the southern and central sections, and two blocks on the 
northern section. 

Building work was commenced in October, 1927, on the central 
block, named Chamberlain House, after the Rt. Hon. Neville 
Chamberlain, M.P., formerly Minister of Health, and has been carried 
on almost continuously. This block and the first block of Walker 
House have been fitted with a central hot water supply and electricity 
has been installed for lighting, heating and cooking. 

The southern block, Levita House, was named after Lt.-Col. Sir 
Cecil Levita, K.C.V.O., C.B.E., D.L., J.P., who was Chairman of 
the Housing Committee from 1922-1928 and Chairman of the 
Council in 1928-29. The major portion of the block is six storeys 
high. Provision has also been made for electric cooking as well 
as for heating and lighting. 

The two northern blocks are named Walker House after Mr. H. dc 
R. Walker, who was Chairman of the Housing Committee in 1917- 
1919. The first block was completed in 1930 and the second block is 
in course of construction and is expected to be completed in June, 
1937. As in the case of Levita House, electricity has been installed 
for cooking purposes as well as for heating and lighting. 

The whole estate, which will include an area of about one acre 
in Chalton-street adjoining, will, when completed, contain 514 
dwellings with 1,637 rooms, a Salvation Army room, maternity and 
child welfare centre, shops, barrow sheds, estate offices and workshops. 
Most of the dwellings are of the normal, pre-1934 type, but a few have 
been built with a reduced standard of finish for letting at low rents. 
Ventilated rooms for the drying of domestic washing have been 
provided in each block. The estimated cost is £317,000. The various 
contractors engaged on the estate have been — Gee, Walker and 



DEVELOPMENT BY BLOCK DWELLINGS 


81 



OSSULSTON STREET AREA — ^VIEW, BEFORE CLEARANCE, OF 
EASTNOR-PLACE 







86 


H O IJ S I N (; 


Slater, Limited, J. E. Billings and Coinj)any, Limited, Rowley 
Brothers, Limited, A. E. Symes, Limited, A. T. Rowley (London), 
Limited, and Mr. J. McKenzie. 

Illustrations of the area before r(‘construetion and of the estate 
after reconstruction a])pear on pages 81 to 83. Two views of 
Chamberlain House are on pages 84 and 85. 

CI.APHAM Park Estate 

Clapham Park estate, which has a total area oi' about 15 acres, 
is on the northern and southern sides of Atkins-road, near its 
junction with New Park-road, which forms the eastern boundary. 
It lies on the iringe of the locality knowTi as Clapham-park ; it is 
only a short distance from Brixt on-hill and conveniently situated 
for access to the City and all parts of London. Tooting Bec-comnion 
is about half-a-mile to the south-west. 

The land to the south of Atkins-road was the first to be developed 
by the erection of six blocks by (\ Miskin and Sons, Limited, whose 
contract was afterwards extended to include six iurther blocks. 
Work was commenced in August, 1930, and (‘ompleted in September, 
1932, at a cost of about £240,000. 

Two years later, in October, 1934, the remaining eight blocks 
were commenced and these were completed in 1936 at a cost of 
about £190,000. The contractors for these blocks were Wilson 
Lovatt and Sons, Limited, and Gee, Walker and Slater, Limited. 



CLAPHAM PARK ESTATE LYCETT, LUCRAFT AND LAFONE 

HOUSES 





dp:vklopment hv block dwellings 


87 



CLAPITAM PARK ESTATE 




88 


H O IT S I N G 




DEVELOPMExNT BY BLOCK DWELLINGS 


89 



CLAPIIAM 1>AHK KSTATK LAFONK ITOl’SF. 


The total aceoumiodatioii of tlu* estate is 759 dwTlliiim’s eoiitaiuiii^ 
2,188 rooms. All tlu* blocks are of tJie |)re-1984 ty|)es with dryin/r 
rooms in the roof. Th(‘ blocks liave b(‘en named after members of 
tlie first School Board for London, 1870—1878, one of wJiom rc'sided in 
Atkins- road. 

A lay-out plan of the (‘stat(‘ is j>iven on ])ai>e 87, and four photo- 
graphs of buildinos erected on tlie estate on ])a^res 80, 88 and 89. 

East Di javk h Estate 

East Dulwich estate is situated on the eastern side of Dog Kennel- 
hill and is within a mile of Camberwell Green. East Dulwich station 
on the Soutliern Railway adjoins the estate, tramways ])ass along 
Dog Kennel-hill, and an omnibus service is within easy reach. The 
estate is. tJiercd’ore, easily accessible from the City and West End. 
The area of tlu' estate is about 10 acres and the ground falls steeply 
towards the south-east. 

A start was made' in June, 1981, by the construction of Quorn 
and Pytehl(‘y-roads which W('re completed in February, 1982. 

Building work was eommeneed in Deeemb(‘r, 1982, with the 
c()nstruetion of the first four blocks by Ge(‘, Walker and Slater, 
Limited, at a cost of £81,000. T]ies(‘ blocks are of the modified ty])e 
Nl)eeiafly design(‘d for letting at low rents, amf ar(‘ lour storeys high, 
containing 90 dwellings with 272 rooms. Th(‘v were eompleted in 
July, 1988. 

^ The same contractors constructed the next seven blocks containing 
288 dwellings with 823 rooms, six lock-up shops, an estate ofliee, 



EAST DULWICH ESTATE 




DEVELOPMENT BY BLOCK DWELLINGS 91 



HAST DLIAMdl I.STAIK IKLBKlDC.Ji HOI Sh 


sii|K‘riiit( lulcnt's quarters and a ^\orksli()]). This ^^()rk, the eost ol 
whieh uas £118,740, ^^as eoniiueiiced in November, 11K33, and eom- 
])leted in Mareh, 103o. During the ])eriod Albn^htoii load was beiiiu 
eonstrueted, and was fiiiislied in June, 1934. These blocks, wliieli 
include druii^ rooms m tlie roof, are oi* a i>pe ot accommodation 
superior to that normally jirovided j’or rehousing j^urposcs. 

The contractors J’or the remainder of tlu* estate (11 blocks) aie 
Wilson, Lovatt and Sons, Limited, and tlie estimated cost oi’thc work 
is £203,700. The last I'our blocks are nearing completion and the 
whole (‘state will consist ol* 25 blocks containing 890 dw(‘llinos with 
2,830 rooms, including tlu* su]K‘rintend(‘nt\ (juarters. 

Blocks 12 to 25 are partly of the normal pre-1931- t\ pe, j}artl\ 
ot* the 1931 t\pe, and ])artly of the modified t\j)e for hdting at low 
rents. 

The blocks and roads are named ai’tcr the hunt as the district was 
many \(‘ars a^o a meeting jilace for hounds. 

A lay-out j)lan is ^iven on pa^c 90 and an illustration of Felbrid^e 
House on pa^c 91. 

Honor Oak Estate 

In June, 1932, the Council decided to acquire a site m Broekkw 
of about 30 acres for the erection of dwellings to be used in connection 
witli the Councirs slum clearance operations. This site is situated 
in the Metropolitan Boroughs of Deptford and Lewisham and is 
bounded on tlie north, east and west by the SoutluTii Railway, and 
on the south by the Brocklcy footpath. 



1^ ^ jpo 4^ ^ <p> 

.. 



SCAIE OF FEET 

|G ,TOPHAM 

FORRESTJ 



AILCHiTECT. TO 

THE COUNCIL 




1932. 


HONOR OAK ESTATE 






DEVELOPMENT BY BLOCK DWELLINGS 


93 



TIOXOll OAK KSTATK SPALDlNCi AND SKIPTON llOl'SES 


Huildijio’ operations were eoinineueed by Gee, Walker and Slater, 
Liinit(’d, in the antunin of 1932 with four bloeks of the modified 
type for letting’ at low rents, wliieh were eonijileted in July, 1933. 

Further roads and sewers were eomineneed in September, 1933, 
and finished in Deeember, 1933, during whieh time a start was made 
on tlie next 11 blocks and eight shops by Henry Hoot and Sons, 
Limited. These* blocks are similar in type to the first four blocks, 

Huilding work has proceeded continuously since that date and 
the last blocks are nearing completion. The contractors for the last 
IS blocks are (iee. Walker and Slater, Limited, and these are all of 
the 1931 type. 

The total accommodation on the estate is 1,101 dwellings con- 
taining 3,399 rooms and the estimated cost of building is abcait 
£H5,0()(). Of this aceommodation 725 dwellings have been utilised 
in eonnection with slum clearance operations and 378 dwellings liave 
b(‘en allocated for the abatement of overcrowding under the Housing 
Aet. 1935. 

Sites liave been reserved for a children's playground, a nursery 
sehool and a maternity and children’s treatment centre, and plans 
are now in hand for tlic construction of these. Consideration is 
b(*ing given to tlie provision of a community centre f)n the 
cstat(*. Allotments are available for the tenants. 



94 


H O r S 1 N c; 


A new elcrncntarv school has been built on a site ot about 1 J acres 
to serve tli(‘ estate. 

A lay-out j)lan is shown on ]>a^e 92, and a view ol S]addin;[? and 
Skij^ton Houses on pa^e 9‘b 

Coventry Cross Estate 

In November, the Council decided to aequirt* lor housing' 

])urposes a site in Pojdar known as tJie Bromley Maltings site, which 
had an are a ol* about 2i acres. Adjoining- tiiis site were some groups 
of houses and sh(>])s and in July, 1934, the C'ouncil decided to acquire 
tliese as an (‘xtcjision of Uie site. The land tjms obtaiji(‘d has an area 
ot* about 3i acres. 

The site' adjoins tlu* Biver Lea Navigation and it was nee(‘ssary 
for a river wall to be constructed. In addition, owino- to the nature 
of the subsoil it was necessary to construct pil(‘d ldundatioj)s lor the 
blocks ol* dwellings. 

wSeven blocks were commenced in Novembe r, 1934, wlien Simplex 
Concrete Piles, Limited, built tJu* foundations. Th(‘ supen-structiires 
W(‘re erected by Bowley Brothers, Limited, wlio eom})l(*ted the work 
in December, 1935. TJu‘se sev(‘U blocks, whicli art‘ ol* tlu‘ modifi(‘d 
type designed for letting- at low rents, contain 190 dwelling’s with 
580 rooms and were bnill at a total cost (includim»‘ foundations) of 
£04,040. 

It is anticipated that work will be eonmuneed sliortly on the 
remaining’ three blocks, wliieh will comprise 57 dwellings containing* 



COVENTRY CROSS ESTATE — FRONTAGE TO LIMEHOUSE CUT 



DEVELOPMENT BY BLOCK DWELLINGS 


1)5 



COVENTRY CROSS ESTATE 





98 


H O U SING 


Cricket Ground, popularly known as the Oval, and is only a short 
distance from the centre of London. Kcnnington Park is opposite 
the estate on the other side of Kennington Park-road. 

The blocks oi‘ dwellings have been named after famous cricketers. 

Building work was commenced in March, 1934, by the erection of 
two blocks, Grace and Read Houses, of the modified type for letting 
at low rents, and work is still eontinuing. 

At the present date, 12 blocks have been comi^leted ; the founda- 
tions for another block are under construction and two more blocks 
will be commenced in the near future. 

The dwellings, with the exee])tion of Grace and Read Houses, are 
of the normal ])re-1934 type, and also the 1934 types and all the 
blocks contain rooms for the drying of domestic washing. When 
complete the estate will contain 1,114 dwellings with 3,475 rooms, 
workslu)ps and stores, shops, estate oflicc and a school which has 
been built on a site of one acre. Adjoining Grace House a Childrcirs 
AVc'lfare Lentre has been ])rovided by the trustec^s of the Lady Cynthia 
Mosley Memorial Fund on land leased to the trustees by the Council 
for the puposc. 

The various contractors who have been engaged on the building 
work have been Rowley Bros., Limited, Wilson Lovatt and Sons, 
Limited, W. H. Gaze and Sons, Limited, Unit Construction 
Company, Limited, and A. K. Symes, Limited. 

A lay-out plan of the estate is shown on page 96 and a pliotograph 
of Key House on page 97. 

Garlands Estate 

Oaklands estate, which has an area of just over three acres, is 
situated in Poynders-road, Clapham Park. The site, because of its 
situation in a pleasant residential neighbourhood, is specially suitable 
for housing purj)oscs. 

The estate consists of three blocks of five storeys, the top storey 
and the one below being designed as maisonettes. The total accom- 
modation comprises 185 dwellings with 582 rooms of the normal 
l)re-1934 type and in the top floor there arc included, in addition 
to the bedrooms of the maisonettes, drying rooms for the use of all 
the tenants. 

The external elevation exhibits the modern tendency towards a 
horizontal effect, which is emphasised by the flat roof, external 
balconies and alternating bands of coloured brickwork. In keeping 
with the horizontal elfect produced by these features, wide windows 
in steel frames have been introduced and these give a maximum 
amount of sunlight in the rooms. 

In the courtyard in the rear of the dwellings, a children’s playground 
has been laid out and fitted with ai^paratus, such as swings, etc. 

The contractors for the building work were R. J. Rowley, Limited, 
who commenced in January, 1935, and finished in June, 1936. 
The cost of the work was £87,970. 



developmp:nt by block dwellings 


99 









100 


HOUSING 





DEVELOPMENT BY BLOCK DWELLINGS 101 



<)\M\NDS PSTAll (I Bin IIOUSB 



OAKLANDS ESTATE —rORECOURT GARDENS, CUBITT HOUSE 




OAKLANDS ESTATK — ClIILDKKX’s PI.AYCiKOUM) 


These dwellings were alloeated lor the ahatcMneiii of ()V(‘rerowdiii^‘ 
under the Housiii^r Aet, 1935, aiu! as they were tlie lii'st of the 
Couneil’s dwellings to be utilised for this purpose, the oeeasion was 
marked by a ec'remonial opening by the Rt. Hon. tlie Chairman of 
the Couneil on 27tli March, 1936. 

A lay-out |)lan ol the estate is given on page 99 and four illustra- 
tions of dwellings ereeted on the estate ap])ear on pages 100 to 102. 

Rockincuiam Estate (Tarn Street and Ayliffe Street Areas 
AND Rockingham Street Site) 

The Rockingham estate, an area of some 18 acres, is situated in 
Southwark adjacent to the ‘‘ Elephant and Castle,” between Newing- 
ton C auseway and New Kent Road, and when completed it will be 
one of the largest ot the (^Rincil’s central London housing estates. 
The estate embraces the site of two clearance areas, namely, the 
Tarn Street area (5 acres in c‘xtcnt) and the AylilTc Street area 

acres in extent), together with a site of 9 acres acquired by the 
Council in 1934 and known as the Rockingham- street site. 

The estate is excellently situated both from the point of view of 
shopping and other facilities which are available in the immediate 
vicinity, and also from that of transport as the C’ity of London and 
Westminster-bridge are within a distance of about one mile on 
main bus and tram routes. 


DEVELOPMENT BY BLOCK DWELLINGS 103 


Adjoining the Tarn-street area on the north is the Council’s 
Newington recreation ground of three acres. The recreation ground 
contains a fitted chihlren’s-play ground and an additional entrance 
is being formed in Bath Terrace for the convenience of the tenants 
on the estate. 

The acquisition and clearance of the Tarn-street area was first 
considered by the Council in May, 1934, and five months later an 
ojiportunity arose to acquire nine acres of property immediately 
adjoining. This is known as the Rockingham- street site and con- 
sists of premises in Rockingham-street and Ealmouth-road. Two 
additional blocks of property fronting Union-road were also 
purchased. 

In April, 1935, the Council resolved to acquire and clear a further 
four acres consisting of the AylilTe-street area which adjoins the 
Rockingham -street site to the east of the? property in Falrnouth-road. 

CJearance operations w(‘rc commenced on the Tarn-street portion 
of the estate, and owing to the nature of the subsoil it was necessary 
that the blocks should be built on piled foundations. Foundations 
were commenced in May, 1935, and work has sinc(‘ proceeded con- 
tinuously. To date, 140 dwellings have been completed, together 
with the foundations j’or scvc'ral further blocks of dwellings. The 
accommodation on this portion of the estate will be 424 dwellings, 
containing 1,375 rooms. 

The pile foundations have been constmeted by West’s Rotinoff 
Piling and Construction Comj)any, Limited, and Simplex Concrete 
Piles, Limited, and the first of the superstructures was erected by 
Unit Construction C()mf)any, limited. The clearance? of the 
Ayliffc-strect portion of the estate is now proceeding and work on 
foundations for the new dwellings will be commenced in the near 
future. 

Th(' Rockingham estate when completed will comprise 19 blocks 
containing 925 dAvellings with 2,980 rooms, together with an estate 
ofiice and worksho}). Tlic dwellings are of the 1934 type and tlie total 
estimated cost, excluding the land, is £525,000. Provision is being 
made for the playground of the Rockingham-street school to be 
considerably enlarged, and sites have been reserved for a day 
nursery and also for a matci’nity and child welfare centre. 

On the Tarn-stre(‘t portion of the estate a new street has been 
form(?d to connc'ct Bath-terrace with Rockingham-street. A 
widening of Union-road and Har])cr- street will also be carried out 
in connection with trallic improvements for the relief of congestion 
at the ‘‘ Elephant and Cfistlc.” 

A plan of the Tarn-street and Ayliffe-strect areas and Rockingham- 
street site before clearance is shown on page 104 and a lay-out plan 
of the reconstruction scheme on page 105. Two views of the area 
before clearance are shown on pages 106 and 107. 



TARN STREET AND AYLIFFE STREET AREAS AND ROCKINC^HAM STREET SITE 




ROCKINGHAM ESTATE RECONSTRUCTION SCHEME 





DEVELOPMENT BY BLOCK DWELLINGS 107 



TARN STREET AREA — VIEW, BEFORE CLEARANCE, OF 
LINWOOD PLACE 





DEVELOPMENT BY BLOCK DWELLINGS 109 


Wandsworth Road Site 

The Council in February, 1935, decided to acquire for housing 
purposes a site in Claphaiti on the north side of Larkhall-lane, with 
frontages on both sides of Wandsworth- road and bounded on the 
west by Albion-road and Clyston-strect. The site, about 25 acres 
in extent, mainly comprised old houses with large gardens, and the 
Council proceeded wdth the purchase of the property by means of a 
compulsory purchase order which was confirmed by the Minister of 
Health in December, 1935. 

Tt is ])roposcd to develop the site by the erection of block dwel- 
lings, and the total accommodation to be ])rovided will comprise 
1,032 dwellings with 3,283 rooms in 27 blocks of the 1934 (1, 2, 3 
and 4) types, together with 11 shops (3 w ith basements), 14 basement 
stores, administrative buildings, and a^ children’s playground. In 
the lay-out of the site allowance has been made for the widening of 
Wandsworth-road to 70 feet and Union-road to 40 feed. The develop- 
ment of the site is estimated to cost £570,000. 

Three blocks comprising 109 dw’^ellings are now in course of con- 
struction by Henry Boot and Sons, Limited, and contracts for a 
further seven blocks comprising 307 dwellings have been let to the 
same contractors. 

A drawing showing the proposed treatment of block 5 facing 
Wandsworth-road is given on page 108. 


Sumner Road Area 

In Novcariber, 1935, the Council declared two areas in Camberwell 
to be clearance areas and decided to acquire and use the land 
for housing purposes. The areas are 7| acres in extent, bounded 
on the north by Commercial -road, on the east by Jocelyn-street 
and Boathouse-walk, on the west by Cator-street and a part of 
Sumner- road, and on the south by the Council’s Sumner-road 
Elementary and Peckham Central Girls’ schools and industrial 
premises facing High-street and Peckham-road. Additional lands 
have been acquired bringing the total area up to 9f acres. 

The accommodation to be provided will be 13 blocks of 1934 
(1, 2, 3 and 4) types comprising 520 dwellings containing about 
1,653 rooms. There is also provision for a superintendent’s quarters, 
estate office and workshop, and for certain street widenings. The 
estimated cost of the work is £257,000. 

Five blocks comprising 217 dwellings are now in course of con- 
struction by R. J. Rowley, Limited, and are expected to be completed 
in the summer of 1937. 

A drawing showing the proposed treatment of the blocks is given 
on page 110. 





DEVELOPMENT BY BLOCK DWELLINGS 111 


White City Site 

In May, 1935, the Council decided to acquire for housing purj)oses, 
by compulsory purchase, a site in the Metropolitan Borough of 
liamnu'rsmith of about 50 acres which formed part of the WTiite City 
Exhibition grounds. The compulsory purchase order was confirmed 
in January, 1936, following a local public inquiry. 

The site, which abuts on Wxstway (an arterial road) and Bloem- 
fontein-road, is well provided with transport facilities ; Wood-lane is 
served with omnibuses and trams, and WVstway with omnibuses. 
W^)od-lan(‘ Stations are near the south-eastern corner ; IJxbridge- 



WHITE CITY SITE — PROPOSED DEVELOPMENT 









112 


HOUSING 



WHITE CITY SITE PART OF PROPOSED ELEVATION, FACING WESTWAY 


DEVP:L0PMENT by block dwellings 113 


road Station is about half a mile distant in the same direction, and 
St. Quintin’s-park Station about the same distance on the north 
side. 

It is proposed to develop the site by the erection of block dwellings, 
and the accommodation will comprise 1,974 dwellings of the 1934 
(3 and 4) types containing 6,210 rooms, and 312 dwellings of the pro- 
posed new type containing 1,080 rooms. All dwellings will be 5 
storeys high and the total accommodation will be 2,286 dwellings 
containing 7,290 rooms. The desirability of a reasonable provision 
in respect of social services has been recognised and sites have been 
reserved for 14 shops, an administrative building and possible schools, 
medical clinic, reading rooms, etc., and children’s-playgrounds. 

The total estimated cost of the scheme is £1,437,000. 

The lay-out as far as ])ossible is based on the principle of a nortli 
to south direction of the blocks with such variation as will give 
interest and variety to the planning ; an'tirrangement of courtyards 
open on the southern side is provid(‘d for, and the effect is assisted 
by vistas through central openings in the blocks occupying the 
north side of the courtyards. A grass lawn will form an amenity 
on one side of the block and suitable varieties of trees will be planted ; 
in some instances a small centralised garden or infants’ playground will 
b(i provided. The other side of the block will fac(‘ an access yard 
or roadway. The roads traversing the estate deliver at intciwals on 
to existing main roads and the lay-out plan makes provision for link- 
ing up with any future housing development which may occur 
outside the present boundaries of the site. A lay-out plan of the 
proposed development is given on j)age 111, and a drawing of the pro- 
posed elevation facing Westway on page 112. 

Tui.SK Hill Site 

In pursuance of the Council’s policy of securing sites for the 
erection of working-class dwellings in connection with its clearance 
operations and for abatement of overcrowding, it was decided in May, 
1936, to acquire by compulsory purchase a site situated on th(‘ east 
and west side of Tulse-hill, Lambeth. The compulsory purchase 
order was confirmed on 15th January, 1937, following a local public 
inquiry. 

The site which is about 33 acres in area comprises about 60 large 
old-fashioned houses, mainly occupied as private residences. The 
scheme of redevelojmient contemplates the (section of about 645 
dwellings of the 1934 types containing about 2,065 rooms, and about 
320 dwellings of the proposed new type containing about 1,096 
rooms ; total, 965 dwellings. 

All the blocks will be 4 storeys high. Sites have been reserved 
for a school and a community centre, and for other purposes, and the 
scheme includes the })rovision of children’s-playgrounds, and an 
estate office and workshop. 

The lay-out, shown on page 114, will accord in general principles 
with that of the White City site. 




TULSE HILL SITE — PROPOSED DEVELOPMENT 

King’s Mkad Estate (Hackney Marsh Site) 

J he carrying out of the Council’s ju-ograinme of slum clearance 
operations on a comprehensive scale in the cast end of I.ondon 
particularly in the Metropolitan Boroughs of Bethnal Green, Shore- 
ditch and Stepney, has been hampered by tlie lack of suitable re- 
housing sites. 

Strenuous efforts were made to obtain suitable housing sites, but 
those Required ^yere totally insuffieient for the purposes in view. 

absence of any other way out 
ot the difficulty, thirty acres out of a total of 340 acres of Hackney 
Marsh public open space were selected for appropriation for housing 
exchange, the Council j)roposed to allocate for 
public open space 50 acres of land at Chigwell. 



DEVELOPMENT BY BLOCK DWELLINGS 115 




116 


HOUSING 


Early in 1936, the Divisional Court issued a Writ of Prohibition 
prohibiting the Minister of Health from issuing his certificate 
consenting to the Council’s proposals, and the Council decided t(> 
promote a Bill to obtain powers from Parliament for the appropriation 
of the land. 

In May, 1936, the problem was partly solved by an offer from the 
Hon. Arthur G. C. Villiers, D.S.O., on behalf of the Manor Charitable 
Trust to exchange some 20| acres of land adjoining the southern 
boundary of Hackney Marsh for a similar area of the Marsh itself. 

The offer was accepted and the exchange effected, at an agreed 
figure of £81,823 for the 20| acres. The Bill promoted by the Council 
was rendered unnecessary and was accordingly withdrawn. 

The land released for housing purposes is situated to the north of 
Homerton Road to the west of the Hackney Cut Navigation- 

Following on the arrangements for the exchange of lands, the 
Council accepted an offer made by Mr. Villiers on behalf of the 
Manor Charitable Trust to present £10,000 to the Council to be used 
at its discretion for improvements and for providing amenities to 
the open space, including the 20| acres to be added thereto by 
reason of the exchange of lands. 

In order to provide a satisfactory lay-out of the housing site, it 
has been necessary to acquire four houses and a plot of land at the 
north-western corner for an extension of Meeson Street eastwards 
to link up with a proposed new street on the housing estate. The 
site when developed will be known as King’s Mead estate. There 
have been many meads in the neighbourhood of the vale of the river 
Lea called King’s Meads. The name is probably derived from King 
Alfred’s association with the locality at the time of his struggle with 
the Danes. 

The scheme of development of the site provides for the erection 
of 16 five-storey blocks of dwellings of the 1934 types comprising 
about 1,000 dwellings containing about 3,200 rooms ; one five- 
storey block (35 dwellings, 121 rooms) of the proposed new type ; 

1 three-storey block comprising 6 shops with dwelling accommoda- 
tion over them ; and one two-storey administrative building. The 
lay-out also provides for a children’s playground to be located in 
front of the block of new type dwellings, and sites have been reserved 
for a new school and other purposes. The total estimated cost of 
the scheme of development is £575,000. 

The work of construction of the foundations of the first two blocks 
of dwellings comprising 161 dwellings with 530 rooms is being carried 
out by West’s Rotinoff Piling and Constniction Company, Limited. 

The commencement of work on this important site was marked 
by the ceremonial laying of the foundation stone of the first block 
of dwellings by the Right Reverend the Lord Bishop of Southwark. 
A lay-out plan showing the proposed development is given on page 115. 



CHAPTER VTI 


DEVELOPMENT OF COTTAGE ESTATES 
Lay-out 

In designing the lay-out of a cottage estate full advantage is taken 
of all the features which the site affords. The location of different 
parts of the scheme is first determined and reservations made for 
open spaces, shops and public buildings, these latter being grouped 
where possible to form a centre. Care is taken to preserve as many 
of the existing trees and other natural features as possible and by 
so planning the lines of the roads and disposing the spaces and the 
buildings as to develop the beauty of vista, arrangement and pro- 
portion, attractiveness is added to the dwellings at little or no extra 
cost. Monotony is avoided by adopting the block of houses rather 
than the individual house, as the unit ; by the introduction of greens 
and shrubberies at corners and the setting of some of the houses 
behind greens ; by the use of culs de me leading to a small turning 
space ; and narrow roads surrounding a green. 

The density of development of a cottage estate is usually about 
12 houses to the acre. 


Type plans 

The illustrations on pages 118 to 122 and 124 to 128 show the 
standard plans now in general use. They indicate the variety of the 
accommodation j^rovided by the Council ; they include : — 


Buildings of two storeys : — 
Houses of five rooms , 


9? 

Flats of 

59 

Larger ty])c houses 

99 99 99 


four „ 
four ,, 

three „ 
two 

o]ie room 


Living room, parlour and three 
bedrooms. 

Living room and three bedrooms. 

Living room, parlour and two bed- 
rooms. 

Living room and two bedrooms. 

Living room and one bedroom. 

Living room with bed recess. 

Living room and three bedrooms. 

Living room, parlour and three 
bedrooms. 


Buildings of three storeys : — 
Flats of three or four 
rooms. 


Living room and two or three 
bedrooms. 


In addition to the habitable rooms, each house or flat contains 
a kitchenette (in which there are a deep sink, a draining board, a 
gas cooker, a washing copper and shelving), a bath, water-closet, 
larder, dresser-cupboard, and storage for coal. 


(117) 



118 


HOUSING 



END INTEJG. 

FIILST FLOOJL fLA.N 



GLOUND FLOOJL 


END IWTtIC 

M-ti OF BOTH kULK OF BOTH 

Floor-s 8/4. ft 8uf; flooils si&f' suf. 



FIVE-ROOM HOUSES 


A’. lIV/FY'/f'-r, ArchUccl to the Council 



DEVELOPMENT OF COTTAGE ESTATES 119 



two 1 INTE.*^ 

FILST FLOO*_ FLAW 



EWO IWTEt-- 

ACEA OF BOTH AAtA OF BOT« 

FLoccs./za-F^sur- FLoots ^aarrsur 



E. r. Wlteeler A rchitcct to the Council 


FOUR-ROOM HOUSES 











DEVELOPMENT OF COTTAGE ESTATES 123 


The approximate sizes of the rooms are as follows 

Living room ... ... 1 50-1 7 0 square feet. 


First bedroom 
Second bedroom 
Third bedroom 
Parlour 


125-150 square feet. 
100-130 square feet. 
65-80 square feet. 
97-115 square feet. 


Development and construction 

Before th(‘ formation of roads, the construction of sewers and the 
erection of houses can be commeneed, a considerable amount of 
negotiation and preliminary Avork is necessary. 

Within certain limits it is necessary to obtain the aj)pr()val t)f 
the local authority in whos(‘ area the works are to be carried out, 
and on extensive sites two or more local authorities may be concerned. 

The proposed drainage and sewerage arrangements frc(juently 
call for prolonged negotiations, particularly where there is an existing 
sewerage system or more than one independent system which have 
be(‘n designed before extensive development was contemplated. 

Arrangements have to be made with the authorities and com- 
panies concerned for the water, gas and electricity supplies. This 
often entails the provision of extensive new mains well in advance 
of building. The sequence of the work has to be plan]\ed to 
synchronise' with the road eonstniction. 

Schools, churches, sho])s and recreational and other facilities 
have to be provided for. 

In the period immediately following the War, having regard to 
the character and magnitude of the work, it was evident that the 
contractors entrusted with it must be such as had had ex])erienec 
of large public works, both of an engineering and building character, 
and also were in command of such an organisation as to leave no doubt 
of tlieir ability to carry out the undertakings. The size of the con- 
tracts involved, the constantly fluctuating prices of labour and 
materials, and the unsettled condition prevailing in industry generally 
in the immediate post-war period, rendered it impossible to obtain 
acceptable tenders on a competitive basis in the manner customary 
before the War, and the line of action followed by the Council in the 
larger housing contracts was that of financing the undertaking and 
bearing the actual cost of the work, one master contractor only 
being engaged for each estate, he being remunerated by a fee for 
his services. This form of contract has since that time been found 
to be so useful owing to the speed with ’which the work could be 
started that it is still employed by the Council. The contract is 
called a “ value-cost ” contract, and provides that the contractor’s 
fee shall be computed on the measured value of the work and shall 
be increased or decreased on a definite scale according as to whether 
the actual cost is less or greater than the measured value. It is 
particularly advantageous when circumstances arise which make 
it necessary to effect changes in the lay-out while the work is actually 
in progress. Under a contract at fixed prices a contractor might 











126 


HOUSING 



G120UND FLOOB. PLAN. 


aria of both 

FLDOIL.S : loa^ TJ SUPtR 

FT.io 0 to ZO JOrr. 

Lc miltltlttililif ....I — 1 t " ^ ” ■ ■ ■ ■ 'i 

E. P. WheeUr^ ArchUfTt to the Conndl 


l^AROER TVPE HOUSES 




DEVELOPMENT OF COTTAGE ESTATES 127 



GROUND FLOOR. PLAN. 

AaiA o? BOTH 

Fiooas ; 10 65 ft iUPEB- 

Ft 10 O If to 3pFr. 

I iii i li l i l ilililili l I —I 

E. P. Wheeler^ Architect to the Council 


LARGER TYPE HOUSES 



E.WD IWTEJL. 

GILCUklD FLOORw TUAkl 


PrIO O 


jL« ^0 30 

E, P. W heeler y Architect to the Coundl 


FLATS IN THREE-STOREY BUILDINGS 







DEVP:L0PMKXT of cottage estates 12ft 





130 


HOUSING 


be justified in elainiing considerable amounts for the loss of his 
profits due to the disturbance of his programme of operations. Under 
the “ value-cost ” contract such changes, when necessary, can for 
this reason be much more economically effected as such claims for 
disturbance do not ai’ise. 

Details of cottage estates 

Details of the various cottage estates develo])ed by the Council 
are given in the lollowing pages. 


Totterdowx Fields Estate 

Totterdown Fields estate, about 39 acres in extent, was acquired 
in 1900. It lies between Upper Tooting-road and Church-lane, to 
the south-west of Tooting-eommon and about half a mile from 
Tooting-junction Railway Station. It was developed in three 
sections. Building work was commenced in 1903 and continued 
until 1911. The ac(;omnu)dation provided was 54 two-room, 619 
three-room, 413 four-room, 175 five-room houses and superintenclcnCs 
quarters, making a total of 1,262 houses. The houses an; of two 
stor(‘ys and are planned in terraces of not more than 20 houses witli 
an open space from 12 to 20 feet wdde betwT‘cn each terrace. They 
are set back 5 to 15 feet from the road and provided with separate 
gardens. The principal streets arc 45 feet wdde and are lined with 
plane trees. The other streets are 40 feet wdde. 

A lay-out plan of the estate is shown on page 129. 


Norbury Estate 

The first estate purchased by the Council outside the County of 
London was that known as Norbury estate, situated to the west 
of the main road from Streatham to Croydon, and about a quarter of 
a mile from Norbury station (Southern Railway). 

The purchase was completed in 1901, and the property comj)rised 
30 acres. A small jiortion was afterwards sold, reducing the area 
to 28j acres. 17| acres were developed before the War bv the 
erection, between 1906 and 1910, of 498 houses. 

The development of the remaining 11 acres by the erection of a 
further 218 houses was commenced in 1920 and completed in 1922. 

The total accommodation on the estate is 716 dwTllings, and 
comprises 90 five-room, 402 four-room and 224 three-room lettings. 

The cost of developing this estate was £219,000. 

^ A lay-out plan of the estate is given on page 131 and a view of 
Northborough-road on the estate is shown on page 132. 





NORBURY ESTATE 


K 


132 


HOUSING 



NORBUKY ESTATE NORTIIBOROUCJ H ROAD 

White IIart-laxe Estate 

White Ilart-Iaiie estate is about 138 acres in extent, to the north 
of Lordsliip-lane in tlie Boroiui^lis of Tottenham aud Wood Green. 
Tlu^ estate' was aecjuired in 1901 aiui was partly developed before 
the War (between 1904 and 1915) by tlie erection of 9G3 houses 
almost wholly between Lordshi])-lanc and Rislcy-avenu(‘. Five 
shojis with dwelling accommodation wen^ erc'cted in Lordship-lane. 

Building work ^\as resumed in 1920 on an area of 50 acres and this 
Avas completed in June, 1923, and the remaining portions ol‘the estate 
were completed betwec'ii 1925 and 1927. The jiost-war houses 
provid('d under tJie Housing, Town Planning, etc.. Act, 1919, arc of a 
slightly larger arc'a than those erc'cted und('r the later Housing Acts. 
Included in th(‘ later development were four concrete houses built as 
an ex])eriment, whi(?h were subs(‘quently purchased by th.e Council and 
included in the estate. Furtlu'r, the last 300 houses wc'rc constructed 
with eoncrete cavity walls on a system known as the “ Kasiform ” 
system. 

In addition, the Council has built on the estates dwellings for the 
rehousing of persons displaced by the first clearance on the Ware- 
street area (Shoreditch). These conqirise seven three-storey blocks 
containing 36 four-room and 36 three-room flats in Topharn-square 
and Risley-avenue. 

In December, 1932, the Council approved the erection of an 
additional 29 three-room cottages to be utilised for rehousing 



HITE HART-LANE ESTATE 









DEVELOPMENT OF COTTAGE ESTATES 135 


purposes under the Housing Act, 1930, and the tender of Sir William 
Prescott and Sons, Limited, was accepted in May, 1933, the work 
being completed early in 1934. 

The total number of dwellings on the estate, including the three- 
storey flats, is 2,230. 

The various contractors w('re : John Mowlcm and Company, 
Limited ; F. and T. Thorne ; Wilson Lovatt and Sons, Limited ; 
John Laing and Son, Limited ; Rowley Brothers, Limited ; and Sir 
William Prescott and Sons, Limited. 

The lay-out j)lan of the estate shows both pre-war and post-war 
development, and indicates, in a striking manner, the difference in 
planning of the two periods. In the pre-war section, houses arc seen 
to be closely i)aek('d together in a grillage type of lay-out, whereas the 
post-war section, based on more modern principles, lias been 
designed to give openness to the deveh)j)ment and variety to the 
street views. In the post-war development about two acres of land 
were reserved for tennis courts and about nine-and-a-half acres for 
allotments. 

A lay-out plan of the estate is given on page 133, and an illustration 
of Roundway on the estate on page 134. 


Old Oak Estate 

The ])urehasc of Old Oak estate from the Ecclesiastical Commission- 
ers was completed in 1905. The site then comprised about 54 
acres, but the subsequent sale to the Great Western Railway Company 
of nearly eight acres reduced the area to 46 acres. The estate is 
bounded on the north by Wormwood Scrubs, an open space of 215 
acres. 

Tlie section (14 acres in extent) to the west of the railway was 
developed in 1912-13 by the erection of 319 houses and flats and 
5 shops. 

The eastern section of the estate, on which roads and sewers were 
formed prior to the War, is about 32 acres in extent, and has been 
dcvcloj)ed by the erection of 736 houses and two shops. Building 
work was commenced in 1920, and 722 houses and two shops were 
completed by 1922. The remaining 14 houses were built in 1927. 
The total accommodation on the estate is 1,056 lettings, comprising 
228 five-room, 443 four-room, 341 three-room, 27 two-room, 16 
one-room houses or flats, and superintendent’s quarters. 

The cost of develo])ing the site was £666,000. A lay-out plan of 
the estate is given on page 136 and illustrations of portions of the 
estate are shown on pages 137 and 138. 



136 


H O U S I N 



OLD OAK ESTATE 





DEVELOPMENT OF COTTAGE ESTATES 137 



OLD OAK ESTATE WULFSTAN STREET 



DEVELOPMENT OF COTTAGE ESTATES 139 


Roehampton Estate 

Roehampton estate, of about 147 acres, was the first acquired 
after the War by the Council for housinp^ purposes ; it adjoins 
Putney-h(‘ath and is within easy reach of Wimbledon-coiTinion and 
Riehmond-park, and is w(‘ll served by trains and omnibuses. 

Tlie estate was ])reviously a j^nvate park and, with a view to 
preserving as much as possible the natural beauty of the land, 
special re^rard was paid to the retention of trees and the effect of this 
is seen in the preservation of the w^ooded character of Putney Park- 
lane and in a f?roii]) of tall elms at the side of Dover Hoiise-road. 
Putney-park House, a mansion j)urchased with the estate^ has been 
retained and is now used as a club house by the tenants, with tennis 
courts adjoinin^r. A well-wooded j)iece of land of about 3i acres lias 
been preserved as a recreation round for eliildrc'n, and about 91 
acres as allotments. An ehanentary school has been erected in 
IIuntin^?field-road, and shops have been provided by private enter- 
prise on the Upper Riehmond-road frontage. 

The roads and sewers were completed in October, 1921, by 
H. Woodliam and Sons, and the construction of the houses w^as 
commenced in the autumn of 1920, but owin^‘ to several reasons, 
amongst which were hicfh costs and l’ailur(‘ of one contractor, the 
estate was not eompleted till April, 1927. The completion of the 
work was undertaken by the contractor for Recontree under his 
“ value-cost ” contract. 



ROEHAMPTON ESTATE — THE PLEASANCE 


Roehampton estate 





DEVELOPMENT OF COTTAGE ESTATES 141 





DEVELOPMENT OF COTTAGE ESTATES 143 


The total number of houses on the estate is 1,212, and comprises 
322 five-room, 348 four-room non-parlour, 186 four-room parlour, 
and 262 three-room houses, together with 28 three-room and 66 two- 
room flats. Three illustrations of houses on the estate are given on 
pages 139, 141 and 142, and a lay-out plan on page 140. 

Bellingham {main portion) 

The estate known as Bellingham is situated in Lewisham and lies 
between the mid-Kent and the Catford loop lines of the Southern 
Railway, and is well served by trams, omnibuses and trains. The 
northern portion of the site is practically level, but the ground rises 
fairly stee|)ly between the centre of the estate and Southend-lane. 

The lay-out of the estate was determined by the triangular shape of 
the site and its enclosure by railways on the east and west. A 
feature of the lay-out is the central open space, named Bc'llingham- 
green, whicli forms the focal point of six roads. Sites of about four 
acres in all adjacent to this open spaee were reserved for public 
buildings, such as churches, etc., and in Randlesdown-road shopping 
facilities and an improved licensed refreshment house have been 
provided. Two schools have b(‘en erected. 

Building work was commenced in October, 1920, under a contract 
entered into with Sir Robert McAlpine and Sons on a “ value-cost ” 
basis, and by January, 1923, 2,088 houses and flats had been 
completed. These com]irise 402 houses of five rooms, 111 of the 
four-room parlour type, 1,099 of the four-room non-parlour type and 
188 of three rooms, together with 156 flats of three rooms and 
132 flats of two rooms. 

In addition to the 2,088 houses above referred to, six houses were 
built as an experiment by the Tibbenham Construction Company. 
The external walls of these houses consist of oak timber framing 
filled in with concrete and liaving a vertical damp course of asbestos 
sheets in the centre. 

In December, 1928, Blackwell and Mayer commenced the con- 
struction of a further 32 four-room houses on certain undeveloped 
land, and these were completed in November, 1929, and in 1932, 
6 shops with dwelling accommodation over were erected in Randles- 
down-road by H. and J. Taylor. The total number of houses and 
flats on the estate, excluding dwellings over shops and including a 
superintendent’s house, is 2,127. 

Certain of the street names on the estate are associated with King 
Alfred and his family, who owned land in the neighbourhood ; others 
are derived from the names of ancient mills on the River Ravens- 
bourne. 

Bellingham {codension) 

In April, 1936, the Council decided that the land to the south of 
Southend-lane forming part of Bellingham estate, which had 
previously been let as a golf course, should be developed. This land 
has an area of 52 acres and building work is now proceeding under a 
“ value-cost ” contract by Higgs and Hill, Limited, concurrently 
with that at the Whitefoot-lane site at Downham. 



14.4 


HOUSING 



BELLINGHAM 







> facejp. l-tC] 




DEVELOPMENT OF COTTACxE ESTATES 147 


The accommodation will consist of 28 five-room houses, 6 four- 
room parlour houses, 123 four-room non-parlour houses, 21 three- 
room houses, 112 four-room flats, 224 three-room flats, 16 two-room 
flats and 16 one-room flats in three-storey buildings, making a total 
of 546 dwellings. 

The estimated cost of the work is £280,000. 

About 11^^ acres of the site have been reserved for open spaces, 
sites of acres for schools and an area of 5| acres for community 
centre, shops, etc. 

A lay-out plan of both portions of the estate is given on page 144, 
and two illustrations of the estate on pages 145 and 146. 

Downham 

The estate known as Downham, the development of which was 
commenced in March, 1924, was completed in the early summer of 
1930. 

The total number of dwellings provided by the Council on the 
estate is 6,054. The majority are two-storey houses of brick con- 
struction, comprising 716 of five rooms (parlour type), 1,559 of four 
rooms (parlour type), 1,311 of four rooms (non-parlour tyj)c), and 
2,060 of three rooms (non-parlour type). In buildings of two or 
three storeys there are 64 flats of four rooms, 128 of three rooms 
and 216 of two rooms. Each house and flat has a kitchenette and 
a bathroom in addition to the number of rooms mentioned. Four 
dwellings have also been provided for estate superintendents. 

The estate is generously provided with open spaces, and as many 
as possible of the existing trees have been preserved and new ones 
planted. The estate is well served by trams, omnibuses and trains, 
and the tenants have ample means of transport to the central and 
south-eastern districts of London. Eight elementary schools, a central 
school and an open-air school have been provided and a site has been 
reserved for a secondary school. All the houses and most of the 
schools were built by Holland and Hanncn and Cubitts, Limited, 
under a “ value-cost ” contract at a total cost of approximately 
£3,728,870. Sites were provided for churches, shops, doctors’ 
houses and a licensed refreshment house. 

In June, 1932, the erection of a medical centre was completed, 
which serves the combined purpose of a school medical treatment 
centre and a maternity and child welfare centre, the latter portion 
of the building being let at a suitable rent to the Lewisham Metro- 
politan Borough Council. The building comprises a lecture hall, 
waiting lobbies, medical rooms, two dental surgeries and a recovery 
room, nurses’ room, lavatory accommodation for patients and staff, 
and caretakers’ quarters and perambulator sheds, and provision has 
been made in the hall to enable cinematograph apparatus to be 
used for lectures. 

Three illustrations of the estate are given : a lay-out plan facing 
page 146 and two street views on pages 148 and 149. 







DOWNHAM— NO. 9, DOWNDERRY ROAD 






150 


HOUSING 


Whitefoot Lane Site 

The Council on 17th December, 1935, decided to acquire a site on 
the north side of Whitefoot-laiic and adjacent to the Downham estate. 
This site, which has an area of 78 acres, is now being developed under 
a “ value-cost ” contract by Higgs and Hill, Limited, concurrently with 
the development of the site at Bellingham (Southend-lane) which is 
just over a mile away. This additional site will contain 70 five-room 
houses, 44 four-room parlour houses, 316 four-room non-parlour 
houses, 34 threc-roorn houses, 24 one-room flats, 61 two-roorn flats. 



WHITEFOOT LANE SITE 


324 three-room flats and 162 four-room flats in three-storey buildings, 
making a total of 1,038 dwellings. 16 acres have been reserved for an 
open space, and land has also been reserved for a school site, a doctor’s 
house, and other purposes. 

The estimated cost of the work is £498,000. 

A lay-out plan of the site is given above. 

Castelnau Estate 

The development of Castelnau estate, situated in the Barnes 
peninsula, was commenced by the Council in 1925, and completed in 
the autumn of 1928. The estate, which is 51^ acres in extent, was 
acquired by the exercise of compulsory powers, and the houses 
were built under a “ value-cost ” contract by Henry Boot and Sons 
(London), Limited, on their special system of concrete construction 

















154 


HOUSING 


with cavity walls formed of concrete piers and panels manufactured 
on the site. The houses comprise 193 of three rooms, 122 of four 
rooms (non-parlour type), 177 of four rooms (parlour type), 151 of 
five rooms, and one of six rooms for the superintendent, or a total of 
644 houses. As an experiment electricity was installed in 57 houses 
on the estate for cooking and heating, as well as lighting. In the 
remaining houses electricity is used for lighting, and gas is installed 
for cooking, etc. 

Three illustrations of the estate are given : a lay-out plan (page 151), 
and two street views (pages 152 and 153). 

WoRMHOi.T Estate 

Wormholt estate adjoins the Council’s Old Oak estate and the 
White City exhibition grounds, in the Metropolitan Borough of 
Hammersmith, and is about 68 acres in extent. An arterial road, 
formerly known as Western Avenue but now known as West way, 
crosses the estate from cast to west. 

Work was commenced under a value-cost ” contract by Wilson, 
Lovatt and Sons, Limited, in December, 1926, and completed by 
June, 1928, the expenditure being about £446,200. The total 
number of dwellings, including the superintendent’s quarters, is 
783, and comprises 149 five-room, 231 four- room parlour, 148 four- 
room (non-parlour), and 195 three-room houses, together with 20 
four-room and 40 three-room flats in three-storey buildings. Two 
schools have been erected and shops have been provided. 

In addition to the above, the Council erected on certain vacant 
sites on the estate five blocks of four-storey dwellings of the ty})e 
designed for letting at low rents containing 36 two-room, 48 three- 
room and 28 four-room flats, making a total of 112. The contractors 
for this work were Rowley Brothers, Limited, and the blocks were 
completed in April, 1934. 

A lay-out plan of the estate is given on page 155, and a ])hotograph 
of houses in Westway on page 156. 

Becontree 

Bccontree, which is the largest municipal housing estate in the 
world, has an area of 2,770 acres or more than 4 square miles. It 
is about 10 miles from Charing Cross and lies within the County of 
Essex, partly in the Boroughs of Ilford and Barking and partly in 
the Urban District of Dagenham. 

The site being roughly circular in shape, the lay-out was designed 
with a ring of wide roads near the circumference and others con- 
verging therefrom towards the centre of the estate, where sites for 
public buildings were provided. Whgre possible existing roads 
were retained. 

Over 500 acres have been reserved for open spaces, playing fields, 
etc., including the large central open space (Parsloes Park) and broad 
open belts on the western and southern sides of the estate. Parsloes 
Park, which was formally opened by the Rt. Hon. Christopher 







156 


HOUSING 



:STWAY 



DEVELOPMENT OF COTTAGE ESTATES 157 


Addison, M.P., on 18tli July, 1935, has an area of about 118 acres, 
and comprises about 86 acres laid out as a grass area, including a 
crick(‘t-ground with a j)avilion, and 32 acres forming an enclosed 
park, including a children’s gymnasium, hard tennis courts and a 
bowling green. The land forming an open belt (about 116 acres) 
along the western boundary of the estate has boeii conveyed to the 
Barking Borough Council and has been laid out as a public park 
and playing fields known as Mayesbrook Park. 

At the time of its acquisition, there was no railway station on the 
estat(‘, but Chadwell Heath L.N.E.R. Station was just beyond the 
northern ijoundary, Dagenham Station on the L.M.S. Railway was 
about I mile beyond the eastern boundary, and Dagenham Dock 
Station on the same railway about J mile from the south-east 
corner. After some time the Council secured better travelling 
facilities to the estate. The I^.M.S. Railway Company have built 
new stations, one near the point where Gale-street crosses the line, 
known as B(‘eontree Station, and the other in Hcathway, known as 
Heathway Station. This line ]:)asses through the southern half of 
the (‘stat(' and has now been electrified. While there are no tram- 
way services actually running to the estate, services are available 
at Chadwell Heath, just beyond the northern bf)undary. In addition 
the estate is served by omnibus services operating on nine different 
routes. The estate^ (*an also be reached by the London Transport 
motor-coach routes. The time of the average train journey from 
the central area of London to tlie estate is approximately half an 
hour. 

Two plans arc? rej^roduced. One shows the whole of the estate, 
and the other indicates in some detail the lay-out of the whole of 
that jK)rtion (about 684 acres) which lies north of Ripplc-road and 
within the Borougli of Barking. 

Tenders for the development of the estate were invited on a “ value- 
cost ” basis, and the Council decided to entrust the work to C. J. 
Wills and Sons, Limited, who commenc(‘d operations in September, 
1920, and carried on continuously until March, 1934, although the rate 
of progress varied from time to time. The total number of houses 
f)rovided under this contract was 138 six-room, 3,369 five-room, 
5,0S5 four-room par our, 6,739 four-room non-parlour, 8,726 three- 
room houses and 19 five-room, 28 four-room parlour, 8 four-room 
non-parlour, 161 three-room and 745 two-room Hats, together with 
21 superintendents’ (juarters, ;• total of 25,039 dwellings, giving 
accommodation for about 112,570 persons. Taking the living 
accommodation over shoj)s and other accommodation into considera- 
tion, the ])opulation is about 115,000. The total cost of the work 
under this contract was £13,455,170. 

In order to provide for the needs of the population suitable sites 
were allocated for churches, schools, etc., and the following have 
been erected : — 27 churches, 30 schools, 400 shops, 9 licensed 
j)remiscs, 14 doctors’ houses, cinemas, clinics, libraries and a swim- 
ming pool. 




158 


HOUSING 



BECONTREE 











To face p, 168] 


BECONTREE— DEVELOPMENT IN BARKING AREA 






DEVELOPMENT OF COTTAGE ESTATES 159 



BECONTREE NOS, 321 TO 347, IIEDGEMANS ROAD 






DEVELOPMENT OF COTTAGE ESTATES IGl 








BECONTKEE JUNCTION 


OF LODGE AVENUE AND FITZSTEFHEN 
ROAD 


M 


wm 


164 


HOUSING 



BECONTREE — LARGER TYPE HOUSES AT JUNCTION OF 
GALE STREET AND WYKEHAM AVENUE 


An out-patients’ department of the King George Hospital at Ilford 
has been established on the estate, the site for which was leased to 
the hospital authorities at a nominal rent and a contribution of 
£6,500 towards the eost of the building was made by the Council. 
In addition the Council has made contributions amounting to 
£15,000 towards the capital cost of the main hospital and its 
extension at Ilford. 

Since the completion of the main contract in 1934 the Council 
decided to proceed with the erection of houses on about 32 acres 
of the estate which had been reserved for development by private 
enterprise, and on a number of small scattered sites which had also 
been left unbuilt upon. The total number of houses to be provided 
on these sites is about 800. Contracts have been let for 696, and of 
these 567 had been completed by the end of January, 1937. The 
contractors for the erection of these houses are R. J. Rowley, Limited ; 



WA-TLING ESTATE 





DEVELOPMENT OF COTTAGE ESTATES 165 


Henry Boot and Sons, Limited ; John Knox (Bristol), Limited ; 
and M. J. Glecson, Limited. The estimated cost is £356,959. It is 
hoped to proceed with a further 78 houses in the near future, the 
cost of which is estimated to be £40,900. 

A special feature of this later development is the inclusion of a 
number of houses of a larger type for letting at remunerative rents 
to members of the working-classes who are able to pay more for 
housing accommodation than the tenants of houses of the normal 
type provided by the Council can generally afford. 

In addition to the plans referred to above, illustrations of portions 
of the estate are given on pages 159 to 164. 

Watling Estate 

Watling estate, about 386 acres in extent, lies to the east of 
Edgware-road and immediately to the north of the London aero- 
drome in the Borough of Hendon. The ground is undulating in 
character ; it is well wooded and a stream, known as the Silk Stream, 
runs through it. The land along the banks of the Silk Stream has 
been kept open and forms, w’ith the central open space, practically 
a continuous open space of about 45 acres extending from north 
to south and embodying the best of the natural amenities. In 
addition, 8 aeres have been utilised for allotments and 28 acres for 
sports grounds. 

The estate is self-contained, with its own schools, shops and 
churches. 



WATLING ESTATE — SILKSTREAM ROAD 



166 


HOUSING 


Building was commenced in January, 1926, and completed in the 
spring of 1930. The total number of dwellings provided was 4,020, 
comprising 667 five-room, 858 four-room (parlour), 927 four-room 
(non-parlour), and 1,215 three-room houses, together with 100 four- 
room, 140 three-room and 110 two-room flats and 3 superintendents’ 
quarters. As regards construction, 1,974 of the dwellings are of 
brick, 1,330 have external walls of concrete, 252 are of steel and 464 
are timber-framed houses, the two latter types being built during a 
period of shortage of bricks and bricklayers. The work was carried 
out by C. J. Wills and Sons, Limited, under a “ value-cost ” contract. 
The total cost of the work w^as about £2,285,000. 

The streets on this estate bear either field names or names associated 
with the local history. The fact that the Manor of Hendon was for a 
considerable period in the possession of the Abbey of Westminster is 
commemorated by the use of the names of certain of the abbots. 

In the autumn of 1935 the Council decided to erect on certain 
vacant sites 14 houses of the larger type mentioned in the case of 
Becontree. These were eommenced in November, 1935, by Henry 
Boot and Sons, Limited, and completed in June, 1936. 

Two illustrations arc given — a lay-out plan facing page 164 and a 
view of Silkstream-road on the estate on page 165. 

St. Helier Estate 

The area of the land comprised in St. Helier estate is about 825 
acres The estate lies mainly within the Urban District of Merton 
and Morden, and the Urban District of Carshalton, and to a small 
extent in the Borough of Sutton and Cheam. The greater part of 
the site is either level or gently undulating and is well wooded. 
Excellent travelling facilities have been provided by the extension 
of the underground railway to Morden and the building of a new 
station (St. Helier) on the Southern Railway, and there arc ample 
omnibus services, whilst trams are within easy access at Mitcham. 

In all about 120 acres have been reserved for open spaces and 
playing fields, including a large central open space running across 
the whole width of the estate. 

The Sutton by-pass arterial road had been constructed across the 
estate before the Council acquired the land, and that portion of it 
within the estate has been named St. Helier Avenue. It has a total 
width of 80 feet and, in addition, greens 15 feet wide have been 
provided and the houses have been built 15 feet behind these. In 
view of the use of this road for fast traffic, the number of cross roads 
has been limited to two. Roads 40 feet wide, parallel with the 
arterial road, have been constructed on the estate and the intervening 
land developed by means of culs-de-sac, so that by using the 40 feet 
roads, tradesmen may serve the majority of the houses fronting the 
arterial road. Certain existing roads were widened to 50 and 60 feet 
and Green-lane (a fine avenue) forms a central walk with carriage- 
ways on either side. Morden was at one time in the possession of 



ST. HELIER ESTATE 






FOUR-ROOM FLATS 






ST. HELIER ESTATE EVESHAM GREEN 






ST. TIELIER ESTATE- -ST. IlETJER AVENUE 


tlic Al)bey of Wostininstcr, and Merton was noted for its Priory 
(Merton Abbey) and the new streets on the estate liave been named 
after abbc'vs in England and Wales. 

The estate was developed in sections umh'i* a “ value-c.'ost ’’ contract 
by V. J. Wills and Sons, Limited, and work was commenced in 1928 
and completed in Junes 1986. The estate is entirely self-contained, 
having its own shops, schools, churches, etc , and three licensed 
refresliment houses have been erected on land leased by the Council. 

The total aceommodation on the estate comprises *901 five-room 
houses, 1,552 four-room (parlour) houses, 2,963 four-room (non- 
})arloiir) houses, 3,107 three-room house's, 20 four-room flats, 36 
threc'-room flats, 474 two-room flats, 8 one-room flats and 7 super- 
intendents’ quarters, a total of 9,068 dwellings. The total cost of 
the work was £4,078,500. 

The Council in March, 1929, agreed to lease to the trustees of the 
Douglas Haig Memorial Homes at a nominal rent about 15 acres of 
land as a site for the erection of dwellings for the accommodation of 
disabled ex-service men and the widows of ex-service men, on 
condition that 90 per (*cnt. of the tenants should be sclec^ted from 
applicants residing or employed in the county of London. Sub- 
sequently a further 9| acres, to be used by the trustees in conjunction 
with the Housing Association for Oflicers’ Families, was included 
in the lease. 

A lay-out plan of the estate faces page 166 and illustrations of 
portions of the estate arc given on pages 167 to 171. 




172 


HOUSING 


AIOTTI\GH\M LST\TF OFFENH4AI R0 4D 




DEVELOPMENT OF COTTAGE ESTATES 173 



MOTTINGHAM ESTATK DUNKERY ROAD 




174 


HOUSING 





DEVELOPMENT OF COTTAGE ESTATES 175 


Mottingham Estate 

Mottinghain estate, about 202 acres in extent, was acquired by the 
Council in 1931. Most of it is situated outside the County of London 
in the Urban District of Chislehurst and Sidcup, a small portion 
bein^ in the Metropolitan Borough of Lewisham, and the Borough 
of Bromley. The site has frontages on the east to Chislehurst-road 
and E!mstead“lanc and on the west to Marvels-lane opposite the 
Lewisham Metropolitan Borough Council’s Grove Park housing 
estate. The site is undulating and includes Marvels Wood and 
Lower Marvels Wood. There are three railway stations within a 
short distane(‘ of the estate and an omnibus service passes the (*state. 

0})en spaces of about 25| acres have been {provided by the retention 
of Marvels Wood and Lower Marvels Wood and an open space in 
Elmstead-lane. Provision has been made for the widening of 
Elmst(‘ad-lane and Chislehurst-road. Sites of about 7 acres have 
been reserved for eommc'reifil jmrposes, shops, cinema, refreshment 
house, etc., and there arc sites for sehocSls, church and doctors’ 
houses. 

The estate, when com])leted, will comprise IIG five-room, 110 
four-room (parlour), 918 four-room (non-parlour), and 901 three- 
room houses, 24 one-room and 208 two-room flats, together with 
36 thr(‘e-room and 18 four-room flats in three-stor(\y buildings. 

The construction of the roads and sewers was commenced by 
direct employment of labour under the Council’s Chief Engineer in 
August, 1934, and work on the houses was commenced in i'ebruary, 
1935, by Wilson Lovatt and Sons, Limit(‘d, and is still proceeding. 
It is anticipated that the estate will be completed by the end of 1937. 
A lay-out plan of the estate is sliown on ])age 174 and two street 
illustrations on pages 172 and 173. 

Thornhill Estate 

Thornhill estate was acquired by the Council in the autumn of 
1934. It is about 40 acres in extent, but only about 20 acres is being 
used for housing purposes, the remaind(‘r having been set aside for 
an opc'ii space. 

The estate' is situated in Park-lane, off Shooter’s Ilill-road. and 
is in tlie Metropolitan Borough of Greenwich. 

Thc‘ roads and sewers were constructed by the direct employment 
of labour under the supervision of the Chief Engineer concurrently 
with the road and sewer work at the Mottingham estate referred to 
above. 

The estate, when complete, will comprise 18 five-room, 16 four- 
room (parlour), 141 four-room (non-parlour), and 57 three-room 
houses, together with 36 four-room, 72 three-room, 32 two-room 
and 8 one-room flats, or a total of 380 dwellings. The three and 
four-room flats have been allocated for the abatement of overcrowding 
under the Housing Act, 1935. 

Thci building work is being undertaken by Henry Boot and Sons, 
Limited, who commenced operations in November, 1935, and the 
estimated cost is £161,000. 

A lay-out plan of the estate is given on page 176. 




THORNHILL ESTATE 

Hanwell Estate 

The Council in December, 1932, decided to close the Hanwell 
Residential School, which lies within the Borough of Ealing, and in 
February, 1935, it was agreed, in view of the difliculty experienced in 
obtaining sites for housing estates within a reasonable distance from 
the centre of London, to appropriate the site for housing purposes. 

The site, which comprises about 140 acres, is rectangular in shape, 
with a gentle rise from the north towards the south, and possesses 
long frontages to Ruislip-road and Greenford- avenue. Adequate 
travelling facilities are provided by trains, omnibuses and trams. 

The lay-out provides for most of the roads to run from north 
to south and from cast to west, and allowance has been made for the 
widening of Ruislip-road and Greenford-avenue. An open space 
of about 9 acres has been reserved round the site of the former 
school buildings, and from this there will be a pleasant vista of long 
greens running to the northern boundary of the estate, with roads 
and houses on either side. The land between Ruislip-road and the 
river Brent has also been reserved as an open space. 

Sites are provided for churches, schools, public buildings, and 
shops. 

The total accommodation of the estate when complete will be 
72 five-room, 70 four-room (parlour), 659 four-room (non-parlour) 
and 480 three-room houses together with 82 one-room, 144 two-room, 




DEVELOPMENT OF COTTAGE ESTATES 177 



HANWELL ESTATE 









178 


HOUSING 


16 three-room and 8 four-room flats. There will also be 82 tour- 
i‘oom (non-parlour) and 24 five-room houses of the better type 
similar to those provided at Becontree. 

The development of the estate, including roads and sewers, has 
been entrusted to Unit Construction Company, Limited, on a 
“ value-eost ” basis, and work was commenced in December, 1985. 

The total estimated cost of the development is £812,000. 

A lay-out plan of the estate is on page 177. 

Kkxmore Park Estate 

Kenmore Park estate, comprising about 58 acres, which had been 
partially developed so far as roads and sewers were concerned, was 
acejuired by the Council in 1985 on the understanding that the vendor 
would complete the roads and sewers to the satisfaction of the local 
authority and at his own expense. The (‘state is situated in the 
Harrow Urban District about a quarter of a mile to the north of 
Kenton-road and about midway between Kenton and Kingsbury 
stations on the L.M.S. and Metro])olitan Railways respectively. 
There is a large shoj)ping centre within easy reach of the estate, 
two large schools have been |)rovided recently near the estate, and 
there is a public open s])aee of about 80 acres wnthin half a mile. 



KENMORE PARK ESTATE 





DEVELOPMENT OF COTTAGE ESTATES 179 


In addition to the two railway stations named, which are within easy 
access, there are two more within a reasonable distance, besides 
services of omnibuses along Kenton-road. 

The lay-out provides for the reservation of an open space of 
3| acres, 8 acres for a school site and about 1 acre for allotments. 

The total number of dwellings to be })rovided is 053 and comj^rises 
34 five-room, 33 four-room (parlour), 290 four-room (non-parlour) 
and 224 thi‘ee-room house s together with 32 one-room and 40 two- 
room flats. A superintendent’s house will also be provided. 

Tlu^ houses will be ol* tlie type usually provided on cottage estates, 
and the total cost of dcvelo])ment is estimated at £280,500. 

Th(‘ dev(‘lo]^ment is being carried out by the contractor for the 
H anw(‘ll estate (Unit Construction Company, Limited) as an ex- 
tension of that contract and work is proceeding ra})idly. 

A lay-out plan of tlie estate is shown on page 178. 


CHAPTER VIII 


CITY OF LONDON CORPORATION 

In the one square mile of the City of London, devoted as it is to 
commerce and havin^y^ a comparatively small residential population, 
the housing question cannot be said to be acute, but the Corj)oration 
of the City of London has always recognised the rcs])onsibilities 
devolving on it as the local authority to safeguard the health and 
well-being of its citizens, and has taken advantage of its statutory 
powers to deal with any insanitary areas which have been found to 
exist. 


Artizans' Dwellings, Stone ij Lane 

The first record of a housing scheme carried out in the City of 
London by the Corporation as the local authority occurs shortly 
after the passing of the Artizans’ and Labourers’ Dwellings Act of 
1875 when the then Commissioners of Sewers for the City of London 
(subsequently merged into the Corporation of the City of London by 
the City of London Sewers Act, 1898), who were the local authority 
for the purposes of that Act, dealt Avith insanitary areas in Holiday- 
yard, Blewitts Building, Golden-lane and Petticoat-square, and 
erected on a portion of the cleared site five blocks of artizans’ dwel- 
lings, each of fiv(^ storeys and containing in all 36 shops and 241 
tenements, at a cost, including clearance of the site, of £200,915. 


Hutchison Street and Queen's Court, Vine Street, Minories areas 
improvements schemes 

In 1919 the Corporation embarked on a clearance scheme for two 
insanitary areas, viz,, the Hutchison-street area and the Queen’s- 
court. Vine-street, Minories area. 

The Hutchison-street area comprised about two acres and included 
151 houses and the number of persons to be rehoused was 885, of 
whom 250 had to be rehoused on the site. 

The Queen’s-court, Vine-street, Minories area, comprised 3,715 
feet super and included 7 houses containing 72 persons. 

These areas were dealt with under the Housing of the Working 
Classes Acts, and the necessary Orders sanctioning the schemes for 
the purpose were issued by the Minister of Health. 

Two blocks of buildings known as Bearsted House and Dutton 
House were erected in 1926 and 1927 on part of the cleared site of 
the Hutchison-street area. These two blocks, the first containing 
7 shops on the ground floor and 24 dwellings on three floors, and the 
second 8 shops on the ground floor and 16 dwellings on three floors, 
provided the requisite accommodation for rehousing on the site and, 
for the remainder of the persons displaced, a block known as Windsor 
House and containing 104 dwellings on five floors, was erected on a 
site in Shoreditch fronting Shepherdess-walk, Turner-place and 
Wenlock-road. A photograph of Windsor House is on page 181. 

( 180 ) 



CITY OF LONDON CORPORATION 181 


182 


HOUSING 


The total cost of the clearance of the Hiitchi son-street area, 
after deducting the sum realised from the sale of surplus land, and 
including the erection of Bearsted and Dutton Houses, road and 
sewer works, was £80,746 ; the scheme is State aided. 

The cost of erection of Windsor House, viz,, £105,973, and the 
clearance of the Queen’s-eourt, Vine-street, Minories area, viz., 
£3,270, was borne entirely by the Corporation. The cleared site of 
the Queen's-court, Vine-street, Minories area was sold for a sum 
of £4,750. 

Housing Scheme after the War. — Ilford; Avondale House, Old Kent 
Road; and Blake House, Hercules Road 

At the conclusion of the War in 1918, the Government, after a 
survey of the housing needs of the country, introduced and passed 
the Housing, Town Planning, etc.. Act of 1 91 9. No ne('d was af)f)arent 
for the provision in the City of housing accommodation under this 
Act but the Corporation of the City of London felt that it was in- 
cumbent on it to take some part in the national effort, and w ith the 
intention of assisting in the provision of accommodation for persons 
employed in the City, a loan of £2,750,000 w^as raised, inquiries w^ere 
instituted as to sites available outside the City for the erection of 
houses and eventually an estate at Ilford of about 270 acres was 
acquired on which it was proposed to built 2,000 houses. Certain 
premises were also secured for the erection of tenement buildings 
in fairly close proximity to the City, one site being in Hercules-road, 
Lambeth, and the other in Old Kent-road. 

In the early part of 1920 contracts approved by the Minister of 
Health were entered into for the dcvelopnuait of the first portion of 
the Ilford site, but after some })rogress had been made it became 
necessary to review the position in the light of the financial conditions 
then obtaining, and it w’as ultimately decided, with the approval of 
the Minister of Health, that the original scheme should be curtailed 
and only 221 houses should be built. The Corporation subsequently 
sold these houses and the surplus land, and private enterprise has 
since been responsible lor the further development of the estate. 

On the sites in Old Kent-road it w^as originally intended to 
erect eight blocks of dwellings but this scheme was also curtailed as 
the Minister of Health refused to allow the construction of more than 
three blocks on a portion of the site. These blo(*ks, knowm as Avon- 
dale House, which cost £65,147, contain 48 dwT'llings on four floors. 
Part of the site w^as subsequently repurchased by the Bridge House 
Estates Committee of the Corporation, the original owners, and 
the remainder was acquired recently by the London County Council 
for housing purposes. 

On the site in Hercules-road a four-storey block of 48 dwellings, 
known as Blake House, was erected at a cost of £75,962. 




CITY OF LONDON CORPORATION 


183 


The Ilford scheme and the dwellings at Avondale House and Blake 
House are State aided, the contribution of the Corporati(jin in respect 
of all the State-aided schemes being the produce of a rate of Id. in 
the £. 


Corporation and Viaduct Buildings 

In addition to tliese liousing activities the Corporation have, at 
various times, undertaken tlie (‘reetion of blocks of flats and dwellings 
for the benefit of tlui ])oorer classes of the community out of its own 
corporate funds. Between the years 1864 and 1880, the Corporation 
spent a sum totalling £59,783 on the erection of dwellings for tlie 
labouring poor at Corporation Builelings, Farringdon-roael, and 
ViadiK’t Buildings, Holborn, where 183 anel 40 flats respe^ctivcly, 
were provided. 

Sarnner Buildings and Stopher House, Southwark 

Much of tlu‘ property accpiired by the (x)rporatiem under the Cor- 
poratie)!! of Londem ( Hridges)Aet, 1911, for the purpose of buileling a new 
Thames bridge in the vicinity e)f St. Paul’s Catheeiral was in a elerelict 
condition at the time of its acepiisition. Subseejuently, the proposal 
for a new bridge not liaviug f)een pr()e‘eeded with, a scheme for re- 
buileling certain prope rty on the Soutliwark side of tJie river at the 
cost of the Bridge^ House' Estates lunds was decided upoii. Two 
blocks cadi of 50 flats were accordingly erected in 1931 and 193‘2, 
on the site of ])ro|)erty dc'molished in Simmer-street, at a total cost, 
including the site, of £126,115. A block of 45 flats was also erected 
in Silex-street in 1935 at a cost of £25,302, and a further block, 
containing 15 flats, is in course of ('rc'dion on the same site', at an 
estimated cost of £11,000. 


Market I'c-housing schemes 

As the Market autliority for London, the Corporation was re- 
sponsible for the establishment of the Metropolitan Cattle Market 
at Islington and in connection therewith a block of dwellings, since 
sold to the Islington Metropolitan Borough Council for housing 
purposes, was erected by the Corporation out of its own funds in 
the years 1866-67 at a cost of £33,000. 

Again, the development of Spitalficlds Market as a wholesale 
fruit, flower and vegetable market to meet modern conditions and 
increased trade rendered necessary the erection of flats to house 
tenants displaced under the scheme of improvements carried out by 
the Corporation, and for this purpose a block of 49 flats was erected 
in 1923 in High-street, Shadwell, at a total cost of £45,000, and a 
further block of 87 flats in Adelina-grove, Mile End, in 1925, at a 
total cost of £95,500, the capital costs being met out of the proceeds 
of the loan raised by the Corporation for the development of the 
market. 




CHAPTER IX 

METROPOLITAN BOROUGH COUNCILS 

Generally speaking, the twenty-eight Metropolitan Borough 
Councils (whose areas of jurisdiction, together with the City of 
London, make up the Administrative County of London, the area of 
jurisdiction of the London County Council) are, equally with the 
Council, local authorities under the Housing Acts within their res- 
pective areas, and this fact of course necessitates the closest co- 
operation between them and the Council. 

Before the War, a limited amount of building and reconditioning 
was carried out by the Metropolitan Borough Councils under the 
Housing of the Working Classes Act, 1890. 

The housing shortage at the end of the War and the creation of 
the State subsidy by post-war legislation increased the housing 
activities of the Metropolitan Borough Councils as well as those of 
the Council itself, and a considerable number of additional dwellings 
were provided under the early post-war Housing Acts. In recent 
years the activities have been directed, however, towards the clearance 
or improvement of unhealthy areas. The general principle adopted 
is that the Council undertakes the acquisition and clearance of the 
larger insanitary areas which normally form satisfactory re-housing 
sites and the Metropolitan Borough Councils deal with the smaller 
areas in their respective boroughs. There are, however, many 
variations of this arrangement and some of the Metropolitan Borough 
Councils have undertaken the clearance of extensive areas. 

For meeting the housing needs of the County of London by the 

f )rovision of accommodation outside the County, the Council is the 
ocal authority. In the case of the Hampstead Metropolitan Borough 
Council special powers were obtained to build outside the borough 
boundary, namely, at Cricklewood in the Borough of Hendon. On 
this site 168 flats and 122 houses have been erected. The estate was 
opened in October, 1935, by H.R.H. The Duke of Kent. 

Arrangements with the Council as to allocation of accommodation 

Under Part III of the Housing Act, 1925 (now incorporated in the 
Housii^ Act, 1936), the Council arranged that a proportion, not 
exceeding 50 per cent., of the new accommodation provided on cottage 
estates should be allocated to suitable applicants recommended by 
the several Metropolitan Borough Councils in proportions based upon 
existing conditions of overcrowding in such boroughs and, to a 
considerable extent, advantage has been taken of this scheme. 

This was a general arrangement applicable to all the Metropolitan 
Borough Councils, and ^fwas distinct from the special arrangement 
whereby, in order to meet the needs of the more central and congested 
parts of London in the pro^ion of new working-class accommodation, 
the Council allocated a d^nite number of houses on its estates to 
certain Metropolitan Borou]^ Councils, on payment by them of a 



METROPOLITAN BOROUGH COUNCILS 185 


fixed annual sum in respect of each house, towards meeting the loss 
on the county rate accruing therefrom. 

Under this arrangement, the houses erected at Wormholt estate 
were allocated to the needs of the various west London boroughs. 

In February, 1984, the Council decided to provide rehousing 
accommodation for a period of one year in respect of displacements 
by Metropolitan Borough Councils under the Housing Act, 1930, 
subject to their paying a sum equal to one-half the statutory rate 
contribution in respect of the dwellings 

Many of the Metropolitan Borough Councils entered into agree- 
ments with the Council for the provision of such rehousing accom- 
modation which, in many cases, was an essential corollary to the 
slum clearance operations of these Metropolitan Borough Councils 
and, in 1935, the Council decided to continue the arrangement 
indefinitely. Up to March, 1936, the Council had provided accom- 
modation for 3,560 persons under this arrangement. 

In certain cases where a Metropolitan Borough Council has pro- 
vided rehousing accommodation for tenants displaced from slum 
areas by operations of the Council, a similar arrangement is made 
whereby the (Jouncil pays an annual contribution to the Metropolitan 
Borough Council concerned in respect of the families so rehoused. 

Under the Housing Act, 1935, the duty of providing the new 
housing accommodation required for the abatement of overcrowding 



W, 8, Dreiden^ MJ.M, and Cy,E.^ IxUe Boronyh Engineer and Surveyor 


ST. John’s estate, (battersea metropolitan borough council) 


186 


HOUSING 



IF. N. Dresden^ M.I.M. and Cy.E.ylnte Borough Engineer and ,Surregnr 

ST. John’s estate, battersea — entrance to courtyard 


was primarily the function of the Council and, this being the case, 
the Council in April, 1936, agreed that no payment should normally 
be required from the Metropolitan Borough Councils towards 
the statutory rate contribution in respect of such accommodation. 
The dwellings so provided are as a rule to be available for the use 
of the boroughs in general and are not allocated to any specific 
borough. Accommodation at Oaklands estate, Honor Oak estate, 
etc., has already been provided for this purpose. 

Although th\ provision of the new accommodation for the relief 
of overcrowdings^, as already stated, in the first place the duty of 
the Council, the ^tropolitan Borough Councils can, if they so desire, 
also erect dwelling^ for this purpose. The Council has decided that 
in order to encoura® such Metropolitan Borough Councils as desire 
to avail themselves <rf this arrangement, a contribution should be 
made of an amount eq\al to half the statutory rate contribution in 
respect of each dwelling\o provided which qualifies for State grant. 



METROPOLITAN BOROUGH COUNCILS 187 


Accommodation provided 

The undermentioned table shows the total accommodation pro- 
vided by the City Corporation and the various Metropolitan Borough 
Councils under the various housing Acts up to 30th September, 1936. 




Number of dwellings of 


Total provided 

Metropolitan Borough 















and City of London 

1 room 

2 rooms 

: 3 rooms 

4 rooms 

5 rooms 

Dwell- 

Boon s 






ana over : mgs 


Pre-War 








Rehousing 

.*50 

492 

307 

16 

— 

865 

2,019 

Housing 

322 

840 

1 791 

389 

56 

2,398 

6,228 

Total 

372 

1,332 

1,098 

405 

56 

3,263 

8,247 

Post-War 








City of London 

— 

117 

186 

191 

247 

741 

2,973 

Battersea 


26 

292 

202 

45 

565 

1,964 

Bermondsey 

.59 

574 

696 

"662 

100 

2,091 

6,443 

Bethnal Green 

3 

15 

274 

189 

5 

486 

1,636 

Camberwell 

— 

— 

56 

95 

291 

442 

2,017 

Chelsea 

— 

— 

35 

21 

— 

56 

189 

Deptford 

— 

— 

6 

73 

167 

246 

1,145 

Finsbury ... 

2 

23 

276 

134 

13 

448 

1,477 

Fulham 

— 

6 

240 

166 

20 

432 

1,496 

Greenwich 

— 


143 

611 

440 

1,194 

5,093 

Hackney 

16 

86 

428 

166 

104 

800 

2,736 

Hammersmith 

10 

23 

94 

156 

479 

768 

3,382 

Hampstead 

— 

52 

214 

1.58 

10 

434 

1,438 

Holborn 

— 

— 

83 

9 

— 

92 

285 

Islington 

— 

56 

438 

299 

104 

897 

3,142 

Kensington 


j 24 

106 

188 

70 

388 

1,469 

Lambeth 

— 

j 33 

277 i 

488 

81 

879 

3,254 

Lewisham 

— 

i 

72 

386 

192 

650 

2,728 

Paddington 

— 

4 

4 

— 

— 

8 

20 

Poplar 

— 

9 

589 

309 

61 

968 

3,332 

St. Marylebone 



15 

35 

80 

— 

130 

455 

St. Pancras 

— ' 

53 

277 

221 

8 

559 

1,862 

Shoreditch 

— i 

41 

113 

45 

4 

203 ! 

621 

Southwark 

— 

85 

i 142 

59 

— 

286 

832 

Stepney 

— 

188 

280 

230 

32 

730 

2,306 

Stoke Newington ... 

— 

9 

78 

28 

3 

118 

379 

Wandsworth 

1 

6 

420 

963 

513 

1,903 

7,695 

Westminster 

117 

297 

! 455 

228 

7 

1,104 

3,023 

Woolwich 

— 

— 

490 

2,446 

809 

3,745 

15,341 

Total 

214 

1,742 

6,799 

8,803 

3,805 

21,363 

78.733 

Grand Total ... 

586 

3,074 

7,897 

9,208 

3,861 

24,626 

86,980 

Rehousing 

143 

1,588 

2,511 

1.516 

160 

5,918 

17,727 

Housing 

443 

1,486 

5,386 

7,692 

3,701 

18,708 

69,253 

Grand Total . . . 

586 

3,074 

7,897 

9,208 

3,861 

24,626 

86,980 


Slum clearance 

Prior to the War, about seven acres of unhealthy areas, involving 
a displacement of about 3,000 persons, were cleared by the City 






METROPOLITAN BOROUGH COUNCILS 189 


Corporation and the Metropolitan Borough Councils between them, 
A number of persons displaced by the operations were rehoused by 
the Council. 

Under the post-war housing Acts (excluding the Housing Act, 
1930) some 32 acres of unhealthy areas were cleared by the City 
Corporation and Metropolitan Borough Councils between them, 
involving a displacement of about 8,000 persons, some of whom were 
rehoused by tlxc Council. 

The largest of the schemes included in these activities was that 
carried out by the Hammersmith Metropolitan Borough Council in 
1922 and known as the Southern Improvement Scheme. This scheme 
comprised some 9 acres and involved the displacement and rehousing 
of about 1,076 persons 

The major portion of the slum clearance work carried out by the 
Metropolitan Borough Councils has been undertaken under the 
Housing Act, 1930, and the following table gives particulars of the 
schemes undertaken, or being undertaken, under this Act up to 
30th September, 1936. 


Metropolitan Borough 

r 

Number 
of areas 
declared 

Number of working class 

Number 
of rooms 
provided 

1 (a) 

Houses in 
areas and 
adjoining 
lands 

Persons 
' displaced 
or to be 
displaced 

Battersea 

2 

15 

87 

370 

Bermondsey ... 

51 

2,046 

12,274 

5,551 (c) 

Bethnal Green 

7 

117 

588 

317 (c) 

Camberwell 

41 

275 

1,156 

316 (6) 

Chelsea 

1 

53 

218 

— 

Deptford 

2 

16 

64 

25 (c) 

P'ulham 

10 

111 

715 

100 

Greenwich ... 

8 

192 

915 

544 (c) 

Hackney 

35 

710 

3,539 

1,035 (c) 

Hammersmith 

10 

139 

592 

Hampstead 

3 

23 

106 

— 

Holborn 

2 

13 

224 

— 

Islington 

19 

196 

1 ,087 

358 

Kensington ... 

13 

179 

1 1,098 

292 

I^ambeth 

3 

219 

i 1,640 

245 (c) 

Lewisham 

17 

144 

488 

112 (b) 

Paddington ... 

3 

40 

155 

31 (c) 

Poplar 

21 

174 

1,112 

538 (c) 

St, Pancras ... 

15 

173 

768 

212 

Shoreditch ... 

7 

64 

313 

70 

Southwark ... 

14 

330 

1,502 

720 (c) 

Stepney 

12 

261 

1,613 

260 

Stoke Newington . . . 

8 

106 ! 

437 

319 

Wandsworth 

25 

540 1 

2,364 

747 

Westminster. . . 

6 

136 i 

593 

339 

Woolwich 

28 

261 i 

1,019 

352 

Total— 1930 Act ... 

363 

6,533 

34,667 

12,863 


(а) The aocommodation includes rooms provided to rehouse persons displaced from three 
areas cleared by the Loudon County Council in Battersea (two) and Greenwich (one) and also 
rooms provided under the Act for purposes other than rehousing persons displaced from clearance 
areas. 

(б) Wholly provided by the London Coimty Council. 

(c) Partly provided by the London County Council. 




190 


HOUSING 


Details of schemes 

The Metropolitan Borough Councils, while using their discretion as 
to methods of construction, type of design, etc., give due regard to 
the amenities required to be provided for the various types of tenants. 
Some Metropolitan Borough Councils whose administrative areas 
fringe the banks of the Thames, or in which low-lying land pre- 
dominates, such as Bermondsey, have many structural and costly 
problems to solve in the matter of foundations and building, and 
find it a structural necessity to use piled foundations often driven 
to a depth of 30 to 50 feet. This naturally increases the cost per 
room of the dwellings, often quoted in comparisons of costs, but 
misleading if all the varying contributory factors are omitted. 
Other considerations affect site and development costs, such as the 
presence of old and obsolete factories necessitating such things to 
be dealt with as disused tan pits, concrete beds for machinery, tidal 
basins and old drains and gas and water mains, etc. 

The majority of the Metropolitan Borough Councils, when building 
in congested areas, erect five-storey blocks of dwellings with balcony 
entrances, the fourth and fifth floors consisting of maisonettes similar 
to the type of dwelling erected by the London County Council. Some 
Metropolitan Borough Councils, owing to restrictive sites, sometimes 
build up to six storeys, as the Stepney Metropolitan Borough Council is 
doing at the present time, in which case lifts have to be provided. 
Other Metropolitan Borough Councils prefer four storeys, with the 
third and fourth floors forming maisonettes, the opinion being that 
three storeys is sufficiently high for women and children to have to 
climb. In the more outlying districts of the county, where land 
is cheaper and the general height standard of buildings is lower, 
three- and two-storey dwellings are favoured. 

The type of accommodation provided by the Metropolitan Borough 
Councils is generally similar to that of the London County Council. 
The finishings and amenities, however, vary from borough to borough ; 
one Metropolitan Borough Council, for instance, may provide electric 
fires and others gas fires in all bedrooms, whilst others may provide a 
coal fire in one bedroom and none in the other bedrooms Hot water 
supplies vary from coppers with pumps, to circulating systems from 
living room fires to sinks and lavatory basins Wood floors, doors, 
architraves, etc , may be found in some, but in others, metal doors, 
windows, etc., and asphalte or rubber floors are provided to minimise 
the risk of vermin. Methods of dealing with refuse also vary ; some 
Metropolitan Borough Councils prefer dust shoots and others bins. 

In large housing schemes, perambulator and barrow sheds are 
usually provided in yards and drying rooms in roofs or yards, and in 
certain cases mortuary chapels have been erected, as in the case of 
the Council’s Loughborough estate 

In the case of Metropolitan Boroughs whose areas are largely resi- 
dential in character, and in which tracts of open land were formerly 
available, cottage estates have been developed. Camberwell, 




METROPOLITAN BOROUGH COUNCILS 


191 


Greenwich, Deptford, Lewisham and Wandsworth Metropolitan 
Borough Councils are examples, but the largest developments on 
these lines have been carried out by the Woolwich Metropolitan 
Borough Council whose boundary adjoins that of Kent This Borough 
Council has one large estate (334 acres) completely developed at 
P^ltham, known as Page estate, containing 2,306 houses of both 
j)arJoiir and non-parlour types and cottage flats, representing a 
capital expenditure of approximately £1,765,392 

The first 448 houses were erected by contract in 1920, but since 
1923, development has been carried out by the direct employment 
of labour. The estate possesses two tenants’ clubs, a welfare 
centre, four elementary schools, three churches, a shopping centre, 
a central children’s playground of four acres and a public open space 
(Eltham Green) of over five acres. A public open space — Harrow 
Meadow (71 acres) — adjoins the estate. 

This Metropolitan Borough Council is also developing Middle Park 
estate. The first section (276 acres) has been completed by the 
erection of 1,698 dwellings, and the second portion (100 acres), 
known as the Horn Park section, is at present in course of develop- 
ment, and will eventually contain approximately 750 dwellings. 
Open spaces^ ^schools, churches, shops, etc., are all provided lor in 
the schemes of development. 



II, W. TeCy M.IM. and Cy.E.y Borongh Engineer and Surveyor 

PORTION OF MIDDLE PARK ESTATE (WOOLWICH METROPOLITAN 
BOROUGH council) 




II. W. Tee^ M.I.M. and Cy.E.^ Borough Engineer and Hurveyor 


DWELLINGS — ^MIDDLE PARK ESTATE 
(WOOLWICH METROPOLITAN BOROUGH COUNCIL) 

Illustrations are given above and on page 191 of portions of Middle 
Park estate. 

It is impossible in a volume of this nature to give an account of the 
housing work carried out by each of the twenty-eight Metropolitan 
Borough Councils, many of whom have carried out and are carrying 
out a considerable amount of housing work. In addition, however, to 
Woolwich Metropolitan Borough Council, mention of the work carried 
out by a Metropolitan Borough Council in the more central portion 
of the County, namely Bermondsey, may be of interest. 

The Bermondsey Metropolitan Borough Council erected in pre-war 
days 224 dwellings. Since the War it has erected 2,009 dwellings and 
has in course of erection a further 444 dwellings. In addition, plans 





METROPOLITAN BOROUGH COUNCILS 198 



HOUSES IN THE VAUBAN STREET AREA BEFORE CLEARANCE 

BY BERMONDSEY METROPOLITAN BOROUGH COUNCIL 


are being pressed forward and new schemes and proposals sanctioned 
for the provision of approximately a further 1,000 dwellings. 

The Borough Council has adopted a scheme whereby tenants in 
its dwellings can be supplied with domestic furniture at a small 
weekly charge spread over a maximum period of three years. 

The Borough Council has declared 51 separate slum clearance 
areas with an aggregate area of approximately 42 acres, necessitating 
the demolition of 1,997 dwellings and the displacement of 12,127 






METROPOLITAN BOROUGH COUNCILS 


196 



Jl ran<lty FRIJiA Borough irchUrct 


SURREY HOUSE, ROTIIERHITHE STREET 
(BERMONDSEY METROPOLITAN BOROUGH COUNCIL) 



n TansUy^ f R T B A ^ Borough Architect 


BLOCK 3, MEAKIN ESTATE 
(BERMONDSEY METROPOLITAN BOROUGH COUNCIL) 


O 



196 


HOUSING 


persons. Thirty-four acres have already been cleared and approxi- 
mately 1,800 dwellings closed or demolished. In addition, 51 
individual dwellings have been closed and demolished under special 
demolition orders, and in ten cases parts of houses have been closed 
as unfit for human habitation. 

Now that a number of housing estates are nearing completion, 
the Borough Council is availing itself of the provisions of the Housing 
Act to provide for the social amenities of its tenants by way of 
playground facilities and apparatus for the children, and facilities 
for the recreation of adult tenants. All the Borough Council’s 
building operations in connection with housing work are carried 
out by the direct employment of labour. 

The illustrations on page 195 are of Surrey House (Rotherhithe- 
street) and Block 8 (Meakin estate), erected by the Bermondsey 
Metropolitan Borough Council. Photographs are also given on 
pages 193 and 194 of parts of Vauban-street and Bethel-place areas 
cleared by the Bermondsey Metropolitan Borough Council. 

The undermentioned illustrations are representative of the buildings 
erected by the various Metropolitan Borough Councils: — 

The photographs on pages 185 and 186 illustrate St. John’s estate 
(containing 272 dwellings), which was erected by the Battersea 
Metropolitan Borough Council in 1931-33. 



C. T, FuUker^ M.I.M, and Cy.E.^ Borough Engineer and Surveyor 


HALLEY HOUSE, PEITCHARD’s ROAD (SHOREDITCH METRO- 
POLITAN BOROUGH council) 



METROPOLITAN BOROUGH COUNCILS 197 



Albert J. Thomas^ F.R.T.B.A, 

KENNISTOUN HOUSE, LEIGHTON ROAD (ST. PANGEAS 
METROPOLITAN BOROUGH COUNCIL) 


Powell House, shown on page 188, was erected by the Hackney 
Metropolitan Borough Council. The building, which was opened in 
May, 1934, is so named through the association of the site with the 
Baden-Powell family who at one time owned the site. The exterior 
of the building is carried out in rustic fletton bricks, and the window 
sills are adaptable for the provision of window boxes. Halley House, 
illustrated on page 196, was erected by the Shoreditch Metropolitan 
Borough Council. The building occupies the site of nine old cottages 
in Pritchard’s-road. The area was cleared by the London County 
Council on behalf of the Metropolitan Borough Council in conjunction 
with the County Council’s larger Teale-street clearance area adjoining, 
The building provides 10 two-bedroom and 10 three-bedroom 
dwellings, each with living-room, kitchen and separate bathroom, 
etc. A flat roof provides a playing ground and drying space. The 
building is erected on concrete pile foundations driven to an average 
depth of 80 feet. 

The illustration above is of Kennistoun House, containing 
64 dwellings erected by the St. Pancras Metropolitan Borough 
Council. Bellamy and Moreton Houses and a portion of Magdalen 
Park estate, erected by the Wandsworth Metropolitan Borough 
Council, are illustrated on pages 198-9. 





/?. Mountford PigoU, F.R.I.B.A, 


BELLAMY HOUSE, GARRATT LANE (WANDSWORTH METROPOLITAN 
BOROUGH council) 






CHAPTER X 


HOUSING ASSOCIATIONS 

It is not the purpose of this Handbook to discuss the work of all 
the various forms of private enterprise engaged in the provision of 
working-class dwellings in London but merely to give some indication 
of the work accomplished from the time when the deplorable housing 
conditions of the poorer classes in London first attracted the attention 
of a handful of zealous reformers. Previous chapters deal with 
municipal housing, whilst this chapter deals with (a) Philanthropic 
trusts, (b) Agencies of a semi -philanthropic character and (c) Housing 
companies providing working-class dwellings for letting, but organised 
on commercial lines. 

Local authorities are empowered by the various Housing Acts 
to provide financial assistance to what are now termed “ Housing 
Associations.” Housing Associations are defined in the Housing 
Act, 1936, as any society, body of trustees or company established 
for the purpose of, or amongst whose objects or powers are included 
those of, constructing, improving or managing, or facilitating or 
encouraging the construction or improvement of, houses for the 
working classes, being a society, body of trustees or company who 
do not trade for profit or whose constitution or rules prohibit the 
issue of any capital with interest or dividend exceeding the rate for 
the time being prescribed by the Treasury, whether with or without 
differentiation as between share and loan capital. 

Co-operation between the London County Council and Housing 

Associations 

The Council has entered into agreements with Housing Associations 
under the various Housing Acts with a view to assisting financially 
the operations of such associations in providing new accommodation 
for the working classes or for rehousing in connection with the 
clearance of unhealthy areas. 

Under these arrangements the Council approves the rents to be 
charged and in the case of dwellings provided under the Housing 
Act, 1930, the accommodation is to be available for a period of years 
for tenants nominated by the Council. 

The Housing Act, 1935, gave the Council power to make arrange- 
ments with Housing Associations for the provision of accommodation 
for the abatement of overcrowding. 

The circumstances in which Housing Associations co-operate 
with the Council vary greatly. Some Associations have undertaken 
the whole operation of acquisition and clearance of unhealthy areas 
and the provision of the necessary rehousing accommodation. This 
method was found sometimes to lead to practical difficulties and is 
generally only adopted when the plan of operations is clear at the 
outset. The more general method adopted is for the Council itself 
to acquire and demolish the old property and secure the closing of 
public rights of way necessary for the suitable redevelopment of the 


(2(H)) 



HOUSINGASSOCIATIONS 201 


area, and sell or lease the cleared site to the Housing Association 
which provides and maintains the necessary dwellings and receives 
the appropriate contribution from the Council in addition to the 
State grant. Sometimes an Association acquires and develops a 
building site and the new accommodation is utilised for rehousing 
purposes in connection with any displacements by the Council 
under the Act. A number of Housing Associations have made 
similar arrangements with certain of the Metropolitan Borough 
Councils. 


Description of certain of the Housing Associations 

The following particulars of some of the pioneer undertakings 
and their later deseendents operating in London is given, not by 
any means as an exhaustive list, but as an example of the work 
carried out by Housing Associations. 

The philanthropic trusts operating in London are five in number 
as follows : — 

The Peabody Trust , — This Trust was founded by Mr. George 
Peabody, an American citizen who came to London in 1837. In 
1862 he created a fund which by various donations and bequests 
had increased to £2,946,854 by 31st December, 1935. 

The first block of dwellings erected by the Trust was in Commercial- 
street, Spitalfields, opened on 29th February, 1864. 



HAMMERSMITH ESTATE OF THE PEABODY TRUST 




T titor H tlkins f It 1 H 1 


HAMMERSMITH ESTATE OF THE PEABODY TRUST — 
INTERNAL COURTYARD 

At the end of 1935 the Trust had provided in I^ondon 335 houses, 
7,187 block dwellings and 7 shops with 56 rooms attached. The 
mean population of these dwellings during the year was 24,245. 
The rents at certain of the estates include the provision of coal. 

The photographs on this page and on page 201 illustrate the Trust’s 
Hammersmith estate. 

The Trust is at present proceeding with the erection of 341 dwellings 
at St. John’s Hill, Clapham Junction, of which 179 are finished, 
and at Dalgarno-gardens, North Kensington, where 128 lettings 
are nearing completion. 

The Guinness Trust . — This Trust was formed in November, 1889, 
by Sir E. C. Guinness (the first Earl of Iveagh). The present capital 
of the Trust is £879,895. The first buildings were erected in 1891 
at Brandon-street, Walworth, consisting of nine blocks containing 
190 dwellings. The illustration on page 203 shows the latest blocks 
of dwellings to be opened, namely, at Stamford Hill. The estate 
consists of 12 blocks containing 400 dwellings on a site of about 

acres opposite the Council’s Stamford Hill estate. Other post-war 
dwellings have been completed at Kennington Park-road, Southwark, 
and King’s-road, Chelsea, each containing 160 dwellings. The trustees 
are also purchasing a site of approximately six acres at Lough- 
borough Park for further developments. 





HOUSING ASSOCIATIONS 208 



Messrs. Joseph , Architn'ts 

STAMFORD HILL ESTATE OF THE GUINNESS TRUST 


On 31st December, 1935, there were 10,566 persons living in the 
Trust buildings in 3,283 dwellings. 

Club and common rooms have been provided at seven of the 
earlier buildings, as well as common laundries and baths. The 
post-war buildings have fixed baths in cither sculleries or bathrooms. 

In the case of pre-war dwellings, the rents include chimney 
sweeping and use of Venetian blinds, drying rooms and hot water 
supply from taps in the yards. 

The Sutton Dwellings Trust, — This Trust dates from 1900 and was 
founded by the late Mr. William Richard Sutton, founder of Sutton 
& Company, Limited, the carriers. The Trust deed provided that 
dwellings ereeted were to be let to the lower wage-earning classes 
at such rents as the trustees might determine, but below the full 
rents which could be obtained. 

The capital of the Trust at 31st December, 1935, was £3,809,302. 
As from December, 1926, the Trust has been managed by a board 
of trustees nominated by the Minister of Health, the Council, the 
Association of Municipal Corporations, etc. The present repre- 
sentative of the Council is Lieut. -Col. Sir Cecil B. Levita, K.C.V.O., 
C.B.E., D.L., J.P. 

Altogether the Trust has erected or is erecting in London 2,168 
dwellings containing 5,382 rooms. The first block of dwellings 
erected by the Trust was in James-street, Bethnal Green, in 1909, 


204 


HOUSING 



Messrs. Henry Tanner^ F./F.Jl.T.U.A> 

GROUP OF BUILDINGS, SUTTON WAY, DALGARNO GARDENS, 
KENSINGTON (sUTTON DWELLINGS TRUST) 


and the latest block (containing 642 dwellings) is at St. Quintin- 
park, North Kensington. The photograph above shows an estate 
erected by the Trust in Dalgarno-gardens, Kensington. 

The inclusive rents of the Trust’s dwellings vary from 3s. 4d. a 
week for pre-war one-room flats at Cale-street and Elystan-street, 
Chelsea, to 25s. a week for flve-room, post-war flats at Upper-street, 
Islington. 

The Samuel Lewis Trust, — The capital of this Trust at the present 
time is £538,673. 

The first block of dwellings erected was at Liverpool-road, 
Islington, opened in 1909. Seven other blocks of dwellings have 
since been erected in various parts of London. The dwellings 
belonging to the Trust comprise 2,097 flats (excluding superintendents’ 
and porters’ quarters) containing 8,699 rooms besides perambulator 
and cycle sheds. 

The Trust, in common with the other housing Trusts, provides 
housing accommodation for poor working folk, irrespective of 
religious or political creed. 

The average weekly rent of each room (excluding the kitchens, 
sculleries and bathrooms) is 3s. 2d., including chimney sweeping 
and the use of Venetian blinds. The illustration on page 205 is of 
the Trust’s Amhurst-road estate. 



HOUSING ASSOCIATIONS 205 



Messrs. Joseph^ Architects 

AMHURST ROAD ESTATE OF THE SAMUEL LEWIS TRUST 


The Aubrey Trust, — This Trust, which is a private and family 
matter, was founded on 4th February, 1931, by three sisters, the 
Misses Alexander, residing in Kensington. 

To date, 30 dwellings have been provided at Orchard House, 
Hammersmith, and 15 dwellings at Oswin House, Hammersmith. 
In addition, old houses have been acquired and reconditioned in 
various parts of Kensington and let at low rents. Photographs 
arc given on page 206 of Orchard House. Any surplus money 
accumulating, after the costs of repairs and management, etc., are 
deducted, is paid into the Trust for future operations. 

The Trust does not confine its activities solely to housing, but 
caters for the social life of its tenants and has established two com- 
munity centres — The Quest and The Venture — and a hostel for 
young women. 

Examples of two of the earlier, and three of the more recently 
formed, semi-philanthropic societies arc given below. 

The Metropolitan Association for Improving the Dwellings of the 
Industrious Classes. — This society was formed in 1841, on a self- 
supporting basis, and shares to the extent of £20,000 were taken up, 
dividends being limited to 5 per cent. A Roval Charter was obtained 
in 1845. 

The first block of dwellings of the non-balcony type were erected 
at Pancras-square in 1846, accommodating 110 families. They 


206 


HOUSING 



Victor Wilkins^ F.R.I.li.A. 

ORCHARD HOUSE, WORMHOLT ROAD, SHEPHERD’S BUSH 
(AUBREY trust) 



Victor Wilkinc, F,RJ,B,A. 

OKCHAED HOUSE (INTERNAL COURTYARD) 




HOUSING ASSOCIATIONS 


207 


were subsequently remodelled and balconies added. The dwellings 
are illustrated on page 208. The building cost of these dwellings 
was equivalent to £48 a room. 

This building was visited on 4th July, 1848, by H.R.H. the Prince 
Consort, who expressed his pleasure at the “ improved ” arrange- 
ments. One of the grounds on which he based his opinion was the 
fact that every dwelling had its own water supply, a definite 
improvement upon the conditions generally prevalent, the usual 
water supply being the communal pump. 

Altogether the Association has provided 1,260 dwellings mostly 
in the central metropolitan boroughs. No buildings have been 
provided in recent years. 

The Society for Improving the Conditions of the Labouring Classes . — 
This Society was founded in 1830 as an allotment society and re- 
constructed in 1850 under its present title^nd incorporated by Royal 
Charter ; its first President was H.R.H. the Prince Consort, who was 
succeeded by the seventh Earl of Shaftesbury. 

The first building erected was in 1844 off Pakenham-street, St. 
Pancras, consisting of 9 three-room, 14 two-room, and 30 one- 
room dwellings. The cost of the site was £1,045, and the outlay 
on buildings, £5,325. A photograph of the building is shown on 
page 208. The building was limited in height owing to site conditions. 
On the expiration of the lease the dwellings passed out of the hands 
of the Society. 

The latest dwellings to be completed are York House, Park- 
place, Lambeth ; and Kent House, Old Kent-road, Camberwell, 
in 1935-36. 

In addition, the Society erected the first common lodging houses 
for men and women in London. 

It is interesting to learn that in designing the Streatham-street 
Flats, Bloomsbury, one of the earliest buildings to be erected by 
the Society, galleries, known to-day as balconies, were introduced, 
the reason being that “ the tenements being rendered separate 
dwellings and having fewer than seven windows in each, it is con- 
fidently submitted are not liable to the window tax.” An attempt 
was made to levy this tax, but on appeal to the High Court judges, 
the exemption of these houses was established, and eventually the 
tax was repealed in 1851. 

The Church Army Housing, Limited. — This Housing Association 
was founded in November, 1924, as the result of a women’s demon- 
stration at the Queen’s Hall to “ call for more energetic action in 
dealing with the housing problem.” 

The Association’s activities are not confined to London but extend 
to the provinces. In London the Association has erected some 215 
dwellings. 



DWEIXINOS ERECTED IN 1844 BY THE SOCIETY FOB IMPROVING THE 
CONDITIONS OF THE LABOURING CLASSES 




HOUSING ASSOCIATIONS 209 


The Association has recently erected a block of dwellings at the 
corner of Basing-place and Victoria-road, Camberwell, on a site 
leased from the Council at a nominal rental. 

SL Pancras House Improvement Society, Limited. — This Housing 
Association was founded as a public utility society in 1925 and owes 
its inception to the late Father Basil Jellicoe and a band of voluntary 
social workers. The Society began its building operations with 
the acquisition of eight houses in Gee-street, Somers Town, which 
were reconditioned to house 22 persons. It next acquired and 
cleared an adjoining site in Drummond-crescent containing 69 
dilapidated and insanitary houses and erected a block of dwellings 
(St. Mary’s Flats) providing 50 tenements. Other dwellings have 
been erected making 355 in all. The Association has also provided 
two nursery schools, and a community centre in memory of Basil 
Jellicoe. 

The photograph below and on page 210 illustrate part of an area 
in Somers Town cleared by the Association. The illustrations on 
pages 211 and 212 are examples of the work of the Association. 



PART OF AN AREA IN SOMERS TOWN BEFORE CLEARANCE BY THE 
ST. PANCRAS HOUSE IMPROVEMENT SOCIETY, LIMITED 






ANOTHSR PART OF JaK AREA IN SOMERS TOWN BEFORE CLEARANCE 
BY THE ST. PANpRAS HOUSE IMPROVEMENT SOCIETY, LIMITED 





HOUSING ASSOCIATIONS 211 



Im B UamiUon t H I B i 


ST. Mary’s flats in drummond crescent erected by 
THE ST. PANCRAS HOUSE IMPROVEMENT SOCIETY, LIMITED 


P 





212 


HOUSING 



Jun //aiHilftii. / I . 


ST. NICHOLAS HOUSE, ST. PANCRAS, ERECTED BY THE 
ST. PANCRAS HOUSE IMPROVEMENT SOCTETY, LIMITED 


Kensington Housing Trust, Limited, — The total number of tenancies 
belonging to the Trust at 31st December, 1935, was 326, with a 
population of 1,729 persons. The Trust arc at present proceeding 
with the erection of some 30 dwellings on a site in West-row and 
Kensal-road, Kensington ; a site in Bramley-road, Kensington, is 
also being developed. The newer dwellings are supplied with 
unlimited hot water, centrally heated by automatic, self-stoking 
boilers, such amenity being included in the rent. 

The photographs on pages 214 and 215 show Queen’s-gate and 
St. Peter’s Houses, Silchester-road, Kensington, built in 1931. 

Particulars are given below of two of the commercial housing 
companies included in the third category referred to above. 

The Improve^ Industrial Dwellings Company, Limited. — This 
company was formed in 1863 by Sir Sydney Waterlow. The company 
erected its first block of dwellings in 1863 at Stepney. It also 
cleared several ar^as in Islington, St. Marylebone, Southwark and 
Westminster in cofimnetion with the Metropolitan Board of Works. 
The total number o5^ dwellings erected in London by the Company 
to the present time isS^,940. 



HOUSING ASSOCIATIONS 


218 


The Four Per Cent, Industrial Dwellings Company, Limited , — 
The first dwellings erected by this Company were Charlotte dc 
Rothschild Dwellings, Spitalfields, E.l, in 1887, and consists of 
477 tenements. Altogether the Company have provided 1,918 
tenements, containing 4,951 rooms. 



Sir John Jinrnrt, Tuil and Lome, Arehitvcls 


EVELYN COURT, AMIIURST ROAD, HACKNEY, ERECTED BY THE 

FOUR PER CENT. INDUSTRIAL DWELLINGS COMPANY, LIMITED 

The photograph above is of Evelyn Court, Amhurst-road, 
Hackney (1,125 tenements) opened in 1984. The Company also 
own commercial property. 

Ecclesiastical Commissiom^rs, and Duchy of Cornwall 

Outside the scope of Housing Associations, mention of the housing 
work undertaken by the Ecclesiastical Commissioners and the 
Duchy of Cornwall may be of interest. 

These two bodies own a large amount of property in London 
which in the course of years has become worn out and below the 
accepted standards of to-day. As opportunity has offered itself, 
much work has been done to provide working-class accommodation. 

The Ecclesiastical Commissioners. — The Ecclesiastical Com- 
missioners, constituted in 1836, consists of the two Archbishops 
and 40 Bishops of the Established Church together with the Deans 
of Canterbury, Westminster and St. Paul’s, and high officials of 
State and public laymen. 


\ Messrs. T. SmUJhShearer and S. Cameron- Kirby ^Architects 

queen’s 4^TE house, KENSINGTON, ERECTED BY 
THE KeVsINGTON HOUSING TRUST, LIMITED 





HOUSING ASSOCIATIONS 215 



}f€ 98 rs. T. Smith-Shearer and S. Cameron-Kirby^ ArchitetM 


ST. Peter’s house, Kensington, erected by the 

KENSINGTON HOUSING TRUST, LIMITED 


216 


HOUSING 


The Commissioners own large estates in various parts of the 
country, which were formerly vested in the Archbishops and Bishops. 
A large portion of these estates are subject to long term leases and 
it is only as such leases have expired that it has been possible to 
embark upon housing operations. 

Between 1894 and 1909, the Commissioners erected in London, 1,192 
dwellings, including cottages, and, since the war to date, a further 
289 have been erected. Additional schemes in hand will provide 
686 dwellings, some of which are in course of erection. 

The work in hand represents an estimated expenditure of £500,000, 
which the Commissioners regard as an investment of capital, made 
(a) in order to carry out a deliberate ])olicy of accepting the responsi- 
bilities of good and enlightened owiuTship and (b) to meet the need 
for providing inexpensive housing accommodation in the various 
areas periodically returning to tlicir control. At the same time 
they realise that they cannot look for a return on the capital ex- 
pended of more than 3 per cent. 

It is interesting to record that the Commissioners were the first 
body to employ women managers, and Miss Octavia Hill acted for 
them from 1884 until her retirement in 1912, shortly before her 
death. 

The Ethelm-street, Lambeth ; Andover-place, Paddington ; Barn- 
street, Stoke Newington ; and Golden-place, Southwark, schemes, 
are being carried out in conjunction with the Council. 

The Duchy of Cornwall . — The interest of his former Majesty 
King Edward VIII in the housing of his poorer subjects is well 
known by his public speeches, but little is known of his practical 
interest when, as Prince of Wales, he commenced the redevelopment 
of the London estate of the Duchy, chiefly around the Oval, Ken- 
nington, affording an interesting example of enlightened housing 
and estate development which has been quietly going on for a quarter 
of a century. 

The Duchy own three estates in London, all of which are in the 
Metropolitan Borough of Lambeth and as long term leases have 
terminated, the obsolete houses have been demolished and new 
houses or blocks of dwellings have either been built by the Duchy or 
the land sold or leased to the Council or the Lambeth Metropolitan 
Borough Council for similar development, some 18 acres of land having 
been disposed of in this way. The actual amount of rebuilding 
carried out by the Duchy is as follows : — 1905-1913, 187 ; 1914- 
1916, 167 ; 1922-1926, 188 ; making a total of 542 dwellings. 

Amongst the buildings erected of particular interest are the Old 
Tenants’ Hostel and Newquay and Trevose houses at Kennington. 

The former, erected , in 1914, was designed by Professor 
Adshead. It consists of st\two-storey group of 48 one-room and two- 
room dwellings, grouped rkund a central courtyard, laid out with 





HOUSING ASSOCIATIONS 217 



Jams l)i Sotsstns ! h f It 1 


MWQIAY HOUSE, KLNMNOTON, ERECTED BY 
'IIIE DICHY or CORN WAIL 



Lovu l)e (Sm » ww F h f B a 

NEWQUAY HOUSE, KENNINGTON — INTERNAL COURTYARD 





218 


HOUSING 


grass and crazy paving. The rents of these flats vary from 4s. to 
8s. a week inclusive of rates and electric lighting, and the accom- 
modation is restricted to retired Royal servants and old tenants of 
the Duchy. 

Newquay and Trevose Houses were erected in 1988, and they 
contain between them 92 dwellings subsidised under the Housing 
Acts, 1928-24. Two photographs of Newquay House are shown 
on page 217. 

The Duchy has also disposed of certain sites to philanthropic 
organisations on specially favourable terms for building purposes 
as follows : — The Cornwall Babies’ Hostel — run under the auspices 
of St. Thomas’s Hospital ; the Red Triangle Club — one of the 
Y.M.C.A. branches ; the Christchurch United Boys’ Club at 
Kennington Oval ; the Cornwall Men’s Club ; and the Lambeth 
Branch of the Personal Service League. 



CHAPTER XI 


COUNCIL’S DWELLINGS— LETTING AND MANAGEMENT 


Administration 

Consequent on the great expansion of the Council’s housing 
activities following on housing legislation passed in recent years, 
the amount of work connected with the administration of the Council’s 
dwellings has considerably increased. Before the commencement of 
the War in 1914, the number of dwellings on the Council’s housing 
estates was approximately 9,980, and, in addition, 1,875 cubicles 
had been provided in three lodging houses for men. 

At the end of December, 1936, the number of dwellings on the 
estates was approximately 78,680, and by the end of March, 1937, 
the number had increased to 80,532, or over eight times the number 
before the War. In addition, there are the 1,875 lodging house 
cubicles and 3,304 miscellaneous lettings, such as shops, workshops, 
allotments, etc. 

The annual rent roll at the end of December, 1936, was about 
£3,094,000, and the population of the Council’s houses and flats 
was nearly 346,200 persons. These figures give some indication of the 
complexity and magnitude of the work of management of tlie 
Council’s housing estates. 

Altogether there are belonging to the Council 116 housing estates, 
situated in different parts of the County of London and in localities 
adjacent to the County, 

The estates may be divided into two categories : — 

(1) 28 large estates, 24 of which are each in charge of a resident 
superintendent, the other four being divided on account 
of their size into 35 sections each in charge of a resident 
superintendent, and 

(2) 88 smaller estates supervised directly from the head office 
but having resident caretakers. 

Of the large estates, 16 consist of cottage property while the 
remainder are composed of block dwellings. The estates arc ad- 
ministered from the head office, where all questions of principle are 
dealt with. At Becontree, where there are 25,574 dwellings, the 
collection of rents and the carrying out of repairs and other mis- 
cellaneous duties are directly supervised by a local officer, specially 
delegated from the head office, who resides on the estate and is as- 
sisted by a local office staff. This is in the nature of a district office 
which relieves the central office of much of the detail work. In ad- 
dition to this staff there were, on 81st December, 1986, 21 resident 
superintendents and 88 estate clerks working in estate offices, situated 
on the various sections of Becontree, where the tenants pay their 
rents and arrangements are made for the execution of minor repairs. 


( 219 ) 



220 


HOUSING 


At other large cottage estates, viz. : Downham, where there are 
four estate offices ; Watling, where there are three estate offices ; 
aad St. Helier, where there are seven estate offices, each office is in 
charge of a superintendent, one of whom at each estate is responsible for 
dealing with any general questions of local management on the estate. 

At the smaller cottage estates (with the exception of one estate 
with only 380 dwellings) and some of the block-dwelling estates 
there are resident superintendents with the necessary estate office 
staff. At each of the remaining estates or individual blocks of 
dwellings there is a resident caretaker in local charge. On some of 
these the caretaker is employed wholetime as such, but on others 
where this is unnecessary he is partly employed in carrying out 
decorative repairs. As a result of the large increase in the extent 
of the Council’s housing work, it has become necessary to decentralise 
more of the work from the head office by arranging small estates and 
individual block dwellings in groups, each groiqi being placed in 
charge of a superintendent, and it is also proposed to establish two 
d strict offices on the lines of that at Becontree to supervise other 
outlying groups of estates. 

The men’s lodging houses are in charge of a resident superintendent 
in each case, who is assisted by porters, bedmakers, laundresses, etc. 
These superintendents, in addition to being responsible for the 
management of the lodging houses, carry on a catering business in 
order that lodgers may be able to obtain good food, cooked and un- 
cooked, on the premises at cheap rates in accordance with a tariff 
approved by the Council. Each lodging house has a barber’s shop 
and a bootmaker’s shop for the convenience of the lodgers. 

The total number of the housing estates staff employed locally at 
the various estates at the end of December, 1936, was 60 superin- 
tendents, one of whom is a woman, 127 estate clerks, 34 full-time 
caretakers, 57 workmen caretakers, 2,340 maintenance workmen, 
105 stokers, porters, etc., and 155 bedmakers and other women 
employees. 

In connection with the work of rehousing families displaced from 
slum-clearance areas the Council employs a special staff of women 
assistants. These assistants, who are experienced in dealing with 
the social problems of the poorer classes, arrange for the removal 
of families from slum areas into the available accommodation on 
the Council’s estates, and keep in touch with them for a period 
of at least six months after being rehoused with a view to giving 
advice on any matters which may arise and reporting upon the 
response made by the families to their better environment. In 
those cases where it is felt that the families have not sufficiently 
responded to the spew conditions, the lady visitors continue to keep 
in touch with suhh families. 

Rents 

In order to appr^iate fully the practice relating to the fixation 
of rents followed byUthe Council throughout its operations for the 
provision of new accommodation, it is necessary to go back to the 




LETTING AND MANAGEMENT 


221 


earliest developments. It was possible, prior to 1914, for the 
Council to provide accommodation and fix rents not in excess of those 
charged for comparable accommodation in the neighbourhood, 
without involving any charge on the rates. The comparison was 
always with other existing working-class accommodation. 

During the War, and since its close in 1918, various Rent Restric- 
tions Acts have operated xinder which the pre-war net rents of 
properties have been maintained with certain increases permitted by 
the post-war statutes, except for those dwellings whieh have legally 
jiassed out of control. 

The present net rents of all the Council’s dwellings provided before 
August, 1914, are the pre-war rents, exclusive of rates and water 
charges, plus the increase permitted by the Rent Restrictions Acts. 

The rents of the Council’s properties erected since the War have 
continued to be based on rents charged for existing controlled 
accommodation, that is to say, the basis of fixation has been that of 
a controlled rent standard and not that of lettings at much higher 
rents than controlled lettings. Neither the cost of building nor the 
rat(? of interest to be borne on the capital expenses have been taken 
into consideration. To do so would result in inequality and an 
absence of uniformity of rents, due to variations in the cost of develop- 
ment of the estates. Due weight has, however, been given to improved 
amenities and sizes of rooms, etc., in the post-war dwellings as 
compared with the pre-war accommodation, whilst on certain 
estates, dwellings with a reduced standard of finish have been 
provided to let at specially low rents, and, since 1934, the special 
lactor of the w^age level of the average family rehoused from clearance 
areas, referred to below, has been taken into account. 

Under section 85 (5) of Housing Act, 1936, local authorities in 
fixing rents are required to take into consideration the rents ordinarily 
payable by persons of the working classes in the locality. Thus the 
principle of comparison with rents of working-class accommodation 
in the neighbourhood is recognised by statute. 

In May, 1929, the Council reviewed the rents in operation at 
its cottage estates and came to the conclusion that on the merits 
of the case and on general and economic grounds, a reduction of rents 
was needed at Becontrec. The main grounds for this decision 
w^ere (i) the distance of Becontree from London and consequent 
higher cost of travelling involved for tenants whose places of 
employment are in London ; (ii) the large proportion of tenants at 
Becontree who have come from overcrowded conditions in London 
and have been required to take accommodation suitable to the 
needs of their families at rents which are necessarily higher than 
those they were previously paying ; (iii) the generally lower rent 
level in the surrounding neighbourhoods. 

The Council, therefore, as from and including 1st July, 1929, 
reduced the rents, exclusive of rates and water charges, of all the 
houses and fiats at Becontree in each case by Is. 6d. a week. 




222 


HOUSING 


Since 1929, the Council has from time to time given further con- 
sideration to the question of rents generally on its cottage estates 
and has made the following reductions on general and economic 
grounds in the rents as originally fixed : — 

Downham ... ... Is. 6d. a week (Is. in July, 1930, and 

6d. in April, 1932). 

Watling estate ... Is. 6d. a week (Is. in January, 1931, 

and 6d. in April, 1932). 

Becontree ... ... 6d. to Is. a week in January, 1933, 

making, with the reduction in 1929, 
a total reduction of 2s. to 2s. 6d. 
a Aveek. 

St. Helier estate and Is. 6d. a week for five-room houses and 
Castclnau estate four- room (parlour) houses and flats. 

Is. 3d. a week for four- room non- 
parlour houses and flats and three- 
room houses and flats, Is. a week 
for two-room flats, and 6d. a week 
for one-room flats, in June, 1938. 

Bellingham ... ... 6d. a week as from 31st August, 1986. 

In arriving at its decisions to make the above-mentioned reductions, 
the Council has had regard to the total inclusive amounts payable by 
the tenants, including such items as local charges for rates and water, 
and to the cost of travelling to and from the central areas of 
London and other places of employment, as in the case of the previous 
reduction at Becontree. 

In view of the estimated financial results of operations under 
the Housing (Financial Provisions) Act, 1924, and also of the special 
reductions made in the rents of block dwellings erected for rehousing 
families from clearance areas, referred to below, the Council decided 
in 1984 to make the undermentioned reductions on block dwelling 
estates developed under the 1924 Act : — 

Glebe estate ... 3s. 3d. a week. 

China Walk estate... 3s. „ 

Broxholme House .. . 2s. 6d. „ 

Kingshold estate ... 2s. „ 

Stamford Hill estate 2s. „ 

Streatham Hill estate 2s. „ 

Stockwell Gardens Is. 9d. „ 

estate 

Loughbbrough estate Is. 6d. „ 

Clapham Park estate Is. 6d. „ 

The Housing A^ 1980, and the Housing Act, 1935, contained 

{ provisions authorisi^ a local authority to charge differing rents 
or accommodation ^pvided under the various Housing Acts or 
to grant to the tenan\ of any house rebates from rent, but the 



LETTING AND MANAGEMENT 


228 


method of doing so was left to the local authority. Up to the present 
the Council has not, however, adopted any system of rent 
rebates, but in order to meet the needs of the poorer tenants special 
types of accommodation to be let at low rents have been designed and 
built. In 1984 the Council decided to take into consideration the 
wage level of the average family rehoused from clearance areas and 
special reductions ranging from 6d. to 4s. 3d. per week were made 
in the rents of dwellings provided for this purpose. Rents for new 
accommodation for rehousing purposes have continued to be fixed 
on this reduced basis. To the extent to which this reduced basis 
operates, a departure is made from the usual basis of the controlled rent 
standard previously referred to. 

Certain dwellings are occupied by midwives, nurses or persons 
carrying on from the dwellings a trade, business or minor profession, 
and a special charge of 10s. a month is made for the privilege of 
exhibiting a plate or advertising. This charge is in addition to the 
normal rent of the dwelling. 

Dwellings occupied by ministers of religion or social workers, 
j)rcierentially accommodated, carry a rent of 2s. 6d. a week more 
than the normal rent, while for dwellings specially let to doctors or 
dentists a remunerative rent is charged in each case. A number of 
larger type houses to let at remunerative rents have been provided 
at Becontree, Hanwell and Watling estates for better paid 
working-class families. 

Prior to the War, it was the general practice to fix rents at figures 
which included the net rents, rates and water charges, and no variation 
was made to correspond with alterations in the amount of rates and 
water charges actually payable. Since the War, however, the 
Council has fixed net rents only and an amount to cover the rates 
and water charges is added and collected weekly with the net rents. 
This added amount is subject to variation in the event of an increase 
or decrease being made in the amount of the rates and water charges. 
In accordance with the provisions of the Rent Restrictions Acts, 
similar variations are also made in the case of pre-war properties. 

All rents of dwellings, except special lettings at remunerative 
rents, are payable weekly in advance. The collection of these weekly 
rents is organised and controlled from the head office at the Old 
County Hall, but the actual collection is, of course, local and takes 
two forms, On the cottage estates and some of the larger block 
dwelling estates the tenants pay their rents at the local estate 
offices situate on the estate, while at small block dwellings the 
rents are collected from door to door by rent collectors who are 
mainly attached to the head office. Owing to its growth experi- 
ments are being made with a view to decentralising some of the rent 
collecting work. Charts and records are kept to show from week to 
week the general state of the rent position at each estate. During 
the year 1985-86, the irrecoverable arrears on the whole of the 
Council’s estates were approximately 0-092 per cent, of a total rental 
of £2,709,889. 



224 


HOUSING 


Letting or Allotment of Accommodation 

Ordinarily a landlord will select the most suitable a])plicants for 
all vacant accommodation. In the case of the Council’s housing 
estates special considerations are involved in the selection of tenants 
and letting takes the form rather of allotment of accommodation. 

All applications for dwelling accommodation on the Coimcirs 
housing estates are dealt with by the head office staff at the Old 
County Hall. In the earlier days of the Council’s housing operations 
the demand for dwellings was generally not pressing owing to the 
fact that there was sufficient vacant accommodation to enable 
persons desiring fresh accommodation to pick and choose. Con- 
sequently the Council’s practice was to accept tenants strictly in the 
order in which their applications were received, subject to references 
being satisfactory. Subsequently many modifications in this system 
were made in order to meet the changing circumstances and the 
new conditions which have arisen. At the present time there are 
in operation a number of regulations made generally with a view 
to securing that vacant accommodation is allotted to those applicants 
who most need it, and to facilitate the various housing operations 
of the Council. All accommodation is strictly rationed, no applicant 
being allowed to become the tenant of more rooms than he needs, 
having regard to the sex and ages of the members of his family, 
and to the bedrooms required. In no circumstances is the number 
of persons to be accommodated permitted to exceed that prescribed 
by the Housing Act, 1935. In special circumstances larger accommo- 
dation may be allotted on the understanding that ]>referential 
treatment shall not be given to the detriment of other applicants. 
No applicant is accepted in any circumstances where it appears that 
he and his family are adequately housed or have sufficient means to 
secure accommodation provided by private enterprise. On the other 
hand, existing tenants, who by reason of changes in their family are 
found to be in occupation of more accommodation than they need, 
are, when not protected by the Rent Restrictions Acts, asked to 
remove or transfer to a smaller house or flat on the Council’s estates, 
while tenants whose means are considered to be greater than woukl 
justify their remaining as tenants of dwellings subsidised out of 
public funds are also asked to vacate and obtain accommodation 
elsewhere. No person residing alone is accepted as a tenant except 
for a one-room flat, and not more than two rooms are allotted to a 
married couple without children or to two persons of the same sex 
living together. 

In consequence of the acceleration of operations under the Housing 
Act, 1980, involving the displacement of many families, to whom 
first consideration in the allocation of accommodation is given, and 
the need for accommodation for the abatement of overcrowding, 
it is becoming increasingly difficult to satisfy the demand from other 
applicants, unless they are prepared to live on one of the cottage 
estates, such as Becontree, Bellingham, Hanwell, Mottingham, 
Roehampton or St. Helijer. 



LETTING AND MANAGEMENT 


225 


With the exception of special lettings to doctors or ministers of 
religion and social workers, etc., and the larger type houses let at 
remunerative rents, only applicants resident in the County of London 
are eligible for accommodation on the Council’s estates. In the 
case of Becontree, however, where there are 25,574 dwellings, and 
a population of about 115,500, temporary relaxations in the letting 
regulations have been made and, subject to the demand from London 
applicants being satisfied, applications can now be entertained 
from persons living and working outside London for all accommoda- 
tion except on the Barking section of the estate. Preference in 
letting is always given to London applicants. 


Repairs 

Repairs to the Council’s dwellings and the maintenance and upkeep 
of greens, gardens and other open spaces on the estates are, in the 
main, carried out by the regular staff, but when necessary in the 
interest of economy or expedition contractors arc employed on 
work of a special nature. The number erf workmen at the end of 
December, 1936, was 2,340, of Avhom about 700 were employed at 
Becontree. The workmen are employed in groups under the general 
direction of the head office and local direction of estate superinten- 
dents on the larger estates, and foremen wlien groups of w^orkmen 
arc engaged oh repair works in various central districts. The following 
table, indicating the expenditure incurred, shows how the repair 
work has increased since the year 1912-1913 : — 


Year ended 
316’/ March 
1913 
1918 
1923 
1928 

1933 

1934 

1935 

1936 


Expenditure 

£ 

22,952 

13,212 

50,234 

126,421 

284,664 

305,042 

399,713 

431,248 


The average annual cost of repairs per dwelling over a period of 
years is shown below 


Year 

ended 

31st 

March 

State Assisted Schemes 

1 Non State -Ass is ted Scl>enies 

Actual 
expenditure 
on repairs 
during year 

No. of 
dwellings 
at end of 
year 

Average 
annual cost 
of repairs 
j)er dwelling 

! Actual 

1 expenditure 
i on repairs 
j during year 

No. of 
dwellings 
at end of 
year 

Average 
annual cost 
of repairs ( 
per dwelling 

1930 

& 

152,846 

37,428 

£ s. d. 

4 18 

£ 

53,074 

10,248 

£ s. d. 

5 3 6 

1931 

225,035 

41,836 

5 7 7 

58,688 

10,249 

5 14 6 

1932 

236,061 

47,701 

4 18 11 

56,445 

10,287 

5 9 10 

1933 

227,667 

51,525 

4 8 4 

56,997 

57,915 

10,274 

5 11 0 

1934 

247,127 

54,780 

4 10 3 

10,232 

5 13 0 

1935 

341,529 1 

57,004 

5 19 9 

58,184 

11,543 

5 0 10 

Dwellings comprised in Housing ! 

Dwellings comprised in Housing 


Revenue Account No. 1 

Revenue Account No. 2 

1936 

364,537 

62,616 

5 16 5 

66,711 1 

10,363 

6 8 9 





226 


HOUSING 


Reference is made in Chapter XII (page 236) to the provisions of 
the Housing Act, 1935, requiring local authorities to set up a Con- 
solidated Housing Revenue Account in respect of all post-War 
housing operations, and to the consequent division of the housing 
accounts of the Council into two parts, known respectively as Housing 
Revenue Account No. 1, and Housing Revenue Account No. 2. 

It will be seen that the average cost of repairs per dwelling for the 
year 1985-36 was £5 16s. 5d. for dwellings in Housing Revenue 
Account No. 1, and £6 8s. 9d. for dwellings in Housing Revenue 
Account No. 2. 

The actual cost of repairs to the Council’s dwellings each year is 
not charged directly as an item of the expenses of management, 
but is charged through the Repairs and Renewals Fund. This fund 
is credited each year with sums based on estimates in respect of the 
various groups of dwellings with a view to the building up of a fund 
to be utilised in later years when repairs will be heavier. 

Licensed Premises on Cottage Estates 

The Council’s policy with regard to licensed premises on its larger 
housing estates is that they shall be bona fide refreshment houses 
and places of social intercourse and entertainment under proper 
conditions and under due control. For this purpose the Council 
requires that any such house shall be for the sale of food and alcoholic 
and non-alcoholic liquors to the public for consumption on and off 
the premises, on approved terms and conditions, including a provision 
that the house shall be available for the general entertainment 
and refreshment of the population, and that persons employed on 
the premises shall not have any direct pecuniary interest in en- 
couraging the sale of alcoholic liquor. It is the practice of the 
Council, whether the refreshment house is a new one or is in sub- 
stitution for old premises such as a small beerhouse, to retain the 
freehold of the site. In most cases offers have been invited 
by advertisement from refreshment contractors, caterers, licensed 
victuallers, brewery companies and any others for a 99 years’ 
lease of a site, on the basis of a premium and a fixed ground 
rent, for the erection, on the conditions laid down, of a 
building of which plans have to be approved by the Council. 
The Council in considering the offers received has been mainly 
influenced not by the amount of the premium offered but by the 
character and planning of the building proposed to be erected. An 
agreement for a lease is entered into, and the lease is granted if and 
when the prospective lessees obtain the requisite licence from the 
licensing justices. 

So far the main features of the licensed houses provided on the 
larger estates of the Council are as follows : — ^A central portion for 
the sale of alcoholic and non-alcoholic liquor and refreshments ; a 
restaurant, social and entertainment hall ; and a non-alcoholic 
refreshment room with a separate entrance. 

In pursuance of the policy outlined above, the Council has, on its 




LETTING AND MANAGEMENT 


227 


larger estates, allocated sites for licensed refreshment houses, and the 
relation between the number of licensed houses and the population 
is indicated in the following table : — 


1 

Estate 

Approximate 

area 

(acres) 

Number of 
houses 

Approximate j 
population I 



No. of sites 
for refresh- 
ment houses 

Becontree 

2,770 

25,574 

115,500 

6 

Bellingham 

252 

2,127 

10,000 1 

1 

Downham ' 

522 

6,058 

29,000 i 

1 

Watling 

886 

4,034 

I 19,000 i 

1 

St. Helier j 

825 

9,068 

40,000 

3 

Mottingham ‘ 

202 

2,852Estd. 

ll,000Estdi 

1 


In determining the number of sites to be allocated for the erection 
of licensed premises, the Council acts merely as freeholder and 
in no sense attempts to fetter the discretion of the licensing justices. 
Regard, however, is had to the existing facilities around the housing 
estates and this necessarily influences the number of sites to be 
allocated on the estate itself. 

The following particulars of Downham Tavern, which was opened 
in May, 1980, are of interest. The main features are — two lounges 
on the ground floor (43 feet by 40 feet and 58 feet by 40 feet) used as 
luncheon room and public lounge respectively. The counters in 
the serveries connected with these rooms are screened oft with 
glazed partitions and the public have no direct access to the counters. 
Refreshments are served to customers seated at the tables. There is 
on the ground floor a recreation hall (61 feet square) suitable 
for the entertainment of about 200 persons at dinners or about 
800 at concerts, etc., which opens on to a terrace facing the garden 
at the rear. There is also a dining and recreation hall (61 feet square) 
on the first floor with a roof garden over it. The remainder of the 
first floor is utilised for kitchen and staff quarters. The garden is of 
sufficient area for bowls and tennis. 

It is the practice in the letting of land on building lease, other 
than that leased as a site for a licensed refreshment house, to impose 
a restriction that the lessee shall not, without the consent of the 
Council, apply to the justices for a licence for the sale of excisable 
liquors, and as regards shops on housing estates the Council has given 
consent to such application in three cases only, all at Becontree. 

Community Associations 

On certain of the larger cottage estates Community Associations 
have been formed and centres have been erected on sites leased by 
the Council to the National Council of Social Service at nominal 
rents. The estates where centres have so far been erected are 
Downham, St. Helier and Watling. 

These Community Centres are intended to supply, on the new 
estates, facilities for the social, educational, cultural and recreational 
activities of the tenants. They comprise a large hall for lectures, 

Q 





228 


HOUSING 


dances or meetings and several smaller rooms which are used by 
horticultural, debating, dramatic and other local societies. Con- 
stituent bodies having a voice in the management of a typical Com- 
munity Centre include local authorities, churches, nursing asso- 
ciations, athletic clubs and local political associations as well as 
representatives of the tenants’ various organisations. 

The Council has also let to the St. Helier Community Association 
for similar purposes the greater part of a large house which was 
purchased with the land forming St. Helier estate. An arrangement 
has recently been made with the Mottingham Community Asso- 
ciation for a similar letting of part of a large house on the Mottingham 
estate. At Hanwell estate parts of the old Poor Law School have 
been left standing as possible buildings for a Community Centre and 
juvenile work. 

Gardem, Greens, etc. 

At the cottage estates the Council, at its own expense, plants and 
maintains the hedges that are generally placed in the front gardens 
of houses immediately against the footways, and maintains creepers 
growing on the front walls of the houses. On the estates developed 
since the war suitable areas are laid out by the Council as greens and 
shrubberies, and the upkeep of these has also been undertaken by 
the Council. Large numbers of trees, both ornamental and of 
forest type, are planted in suitable positions. As far as possible, 
similar action is taken at block-dwelling estates. 

On several estates playgrounds fitted with swings, roundabouts 
and other appliances have been provided for children’s recreation. 
Similar playgrounds are also being provided on many of the block 
dwellings estates now under construction. 

At all the cottage estates, whether developed before or since the 
War, the houses are provided with front and back gardens of varying 
sizes, and under the terms of the tenancy agreement tenants are 
required to keep the front gardens in a neat and cultivated condition. 
On most of the estates the tenants have formed local garden 
societies, with the object of assisting members in the cultivation 
of their gardens. These societies have made a practice of holding 
competitions among the members, and prizes have been awarded 
by them for both vegetable and flower cultivation. 

For several years the Council has made grants towards providing 
prizes for the best-kept front gardens at cottage estates, and for 
window-box competitions at block-dwelling estates, and towards 
the expenses of judging the competitions at the various estates. 

In 1929 the Council agreed to an increased scale of prizes and of 
grants to local garden societies and to the London Gardens Guild 
for judging ; and in 1931 the scheme was enlarged to provide for the 
award of a silver challenge cup for the best front garden at each 
cottage estate and for three such cups at Becontree. The tenant of 
the house with the best of the cup-winning gardens receives in 




SIX MILES FROM CHARING CROSS 

tenant’s garden at roehampton estate 


280 


HOUSING 


addition the championship cup, and a special cup is also awarded 
to the tenant whose garden is placed second. These cups are held 
for a period of one year, but each recipient is also awarded a small 
silver model, which is retained. 

There are in addition money prizes, and the London Gardens 
Society awards a championship challenge shield. 

All front gardens on the estates are considered, and no entry forms 
or other formalities are required. 

The standard of cultivation of the gardens on the Council’s estates 
encouraged by the competition, is steadily improving, and does 
much to add to the appearance of the estates. 

Provision has been made on the Council’s post-war cottage estates 
for open spaces, and in this connection special mention should be 
made of Becontree, where, in addition to extensive open belts on 
the southern and western sides of the estate and other open spaces 
(118 acres), a large area in the centre of the estate, known as Parsloes 
Park, has been provided (see page 154). 




CHAPTER XII 

HOUSING FINANCE 
Generally 

The financial history of the Council’s housing activities falls 
naturally into two distinct periods divided by the Great War. In the 
pre-war period, working-class dwellings, as such, were expected to be 
financially self-supporting, although, as explained later, equilibrium 
could not be achieved in many cases without burden on the rate- 
payer in other directions. 

After the War, when it was necessary to overtake enormous 
arrears arising from the virtual cessation of housing activities during 
the period of hostilities, it became impossible for local authorities 
owing to high interest rates and building costs to provide new 
working-class housing accommodation to be let at reasonable rents 
without imposing a strain on local finances which they were quite 
unable to bear except with very substantial assistance from the 
State. 

Pre-war housing — Housing values of sites 

The Council’s predecessors, the Metropolitan Board of Works, 
in carrying out improvements and clearance operations were not 
empowered to erect the necessary dwellings for displaced persons, 
iprhe cleared sites were disposed of to dwellings companies and others 
Iwith the obligation to erect working-class dwellings thereon. Such 
■sites were sold at written-down figures, assessed on the basis of the 
{obligation attaching to them. 

The difference between the cost of the site and the price (described 
as the “ housing value ”) obtained from the dwellings company was 
regarded by the Board as an expense of clearance of an unhealthy or 
improvement area. The total cost (commercial value) of the sites 
disposed of in this manner by the Board was £727,585, of which 
£829,922 was recovered from companies, the balance (£897,618) 
being charged to the respective clearance or improvement schemes 

Soon after the Council succeeded the Board in March, 1889, further 
legislation imposed the duty of providing rehousing accommodation 
in connection with its clearance of unhealthy areas, but the 
accounts of the dwellings so erected by the Council were charged 
. only with the housing value of the sites, the balance of capital cost 
I being treated as part of the expense of clearance, following the 
policy of the late Board. In this way it was possible, on the whole, 
to let the dwellings on a self-supporting basis. 

Including additional accommodation provided by the Council, as 
well as slum and other rehousing, its dwellings as a whole showed a 
surplus of £15,877 for the year 1918-14. Had the dwellings account 
been charged with the full cost of expensive sites in central areas 
instead of housing value only, the result would have been a deficiency 
of about £24,000. 

At 81st March, 1914, about 9,800 dwellings, equivalent to some 
28,000 rooms, had been completed at a cost of just over £8,000,000. 


( 231 ) 



232 


HOUSING 


Post-war housino — Subsidies 

Clearance of unhealthy areas and provision of cottage estates 
had involved the Council and its predecessors in total capital outlay 
of nearly £5,600,000 up to March, 1914, but in the seventeen years 
following the conclusion of the War the Council has spent on the same 
purposes no less than £41,600,000, on which the average rate of 
interest payable is 4*6 per cent. 

With post-war conditions precluding, for reasons already explained, 
any hope of making new dwellings self-supporting, it was inevitable 
that local authorities should look to the State to assist in defraying 
the annual losses which it was clear would result from the extensive 
obligations they now had to assume. This, of itself, entailed fresh 
legislation. 

The principal Acts which have governed post-war housing finance, 
and the State subsidies provided, have been as follows : — 


1919 

i (The ‘ Addison ’ 
Act) 

1 Additional houses 

1 Slum clearance 
and rehousing 

1923 

, (The ‘ Chamberlain 
' Act) 

Additional houses 

Slum clearance 

and rehousing 

1924 

(The ‘ Wheatley ’ j 
I Act) i 

Additional houses 

1930 

! (The ‘ Greenwood ’ i 
Act) 1 

i 

Slum clearance 

and rehousing j 

1935 

i 

i 

I 

1 

Relief of over- | 
crowding, Re- 

development areas 


Annual loss in excess of a 
rate of Id. in the £ during 
loan period. 

£6 (for later houses £4) a house 
a year for 20 years. 

50 per cent, of approved 
annual deficiency during loan 
period. 

£9 (for later houses £7 10s.) a 
house a year for 40 years. 

45s. a year a person displaced 
and re-housed in new accom- 
modation (70s. in the case of 
expensive sites) for 40 years. 

Annual sum a dwelling (on 
sliding scale varying with 
cost of sites) for 40 years, 
except in case of relatively 
cheap sites. 


The following table relates the Council’s post-war jhousing 
capital expenditure to the various schemes of State assistance : — 


1 

1 

i 

Capital 1 

expenditure to 
31st March, 
1936 

No. of 
dwellings 
completed 
at 31st 
March, 1930 

Act of 1919 

£ 

9,798,539 

9,447 

„ 1923 

4,217,497 

21 ,271, 784(a) 

6,275 

„ 1924 

39,439 

„ 1930 

3,820,733 

4,375 

„ 1935 

171,464 

18 

Non-assisted 

2.357,453 

3,418 

i 

41,637,470 



(fl) Cottage estates £19,933,235 ; Block dwellings in central areas £1,338,549. 






HOUSING FINANCE 


283 


Except for certain slum clearance schemes in course of comple- 
tion under the terms of the Act of 1923, operations ranking for State 
assistance under the three first-mentioned Acts have been finished. 
The provisions governing State assistance towards current operations 
under the Acts of 1930 and 1985 are now embodied in theJHousing 
Act, 1936, which consolidates most of the permanent or quasi- 
permanent provisions of the earlier Acts. 

Owing to the different forms assumed by State assistance during 
the last eighteen years, it has proved impracticable so far to unify 
the various subsidies on a common basis, and they still preserve 
their separate identities in the consolidation of housing accounts 
recently effected by the Housing Act, 1935. 

The successive variations made in the forms of the subsidies as 
post-war housing progressed indicate clearly the gradual trend in 

( Government policy of transferring the risks of the future to the 
shoulders of local housing authorities and of limiting its own liability 
to a definite term of years. 

In 1919 the Government decided to encourage the housing eiTorts 
of local authorities by limiting, to the amount of the produce of a 
rate of a penny in the pound, the extent of their annual liability 
for deficiencies. It was always intended that, as soon as schemes 
under the Adt of 1919 were completed, a measure of stabilisation 
should be applied to the State subsidy under that Act, but only 
four years had elapsed when, following a recommendation of the 
Departmental Committee on the High Cost of Building Working- 
class Dw’ellings that State assistance towards housing in future 
should be a percentage only of the total deficit, the existing form of 
subsidy was limited to schemes approved up to 1921, and the 
principle of equal financial partnership between the State and local 
authorities was introduced by the Act of 1923 in regard to deficiencies 
on slum clearance schemes. In regard to the provision of additional 
dwellings (as distinct from slum rehousing) this Act went further, 
and, whilst maintaining the theory of equal partnership, it limited 
the State assistance for the first time to a definite period (twenty 
years) and also fixed the assistance at a definite sum for each dwelling, 
leaving local authorities to be responsible for future contingencies 
in regard to houses erected by themselves. 

The main reason given for this change of policy on the part of the 
Government was that local authorities were unfettered as to the rents 
they could charge for their dwellings and that a very substantial 
number of houses was expected to be provided by private enterprise 
with the same aid as was available for dwellings erected by local 
authorities. 

When in 1924 Government policy directed itself to further 
encouraging the progressive supply of working-class houses by local 
authorities in preference to private enterprise, the State made itself 
liable for two-thirds of the estimated loss, instead of one-half as 
^under the 1923 Act, and certain conditions as to rents were imposed. 
In theory the Act of 1924 secured local authorities against immediate 
risk of incurring excessive losses under this Act by empowering 
them to pool all dwellings for purposes of rent fixation. 



284 


HOUSING 


With the advent of the special campaign against the slums under 
the Act of 1980, local authorities were made responsible for the same 
estimated amount of loss a dwelling as under the 1924 Act, with a 
somewhat similar provision for pooling of dwellings for rents 
purposes, but the State subsidy was increased considerably in order 
to cover the additional loss resulting from the relatively low rents 
obtainable from rehoused slum dwellers. Whilst local authorities’ 
contributions continued to be based on the numbers of dwellings 
provided, the State subsidy was now based on the number of 
individuals provided for in the new dwellings, with the result that the 
ratio of State subsidy to rate eontribution is over 4 : 1 in the ease of 
most of the Couneil’s operations under this Act. The Act of 1930 
introduced the principle — which was to be developed considerably 
in the succeeding Act of 1935 — of offering a higher subsidy where the 
approved cost of the land used for rehousing exceeded £3,000 an acre. 

The Act of 1935, which subsidised primarily operations for the 
relief of overcrowding and for the redevelopment of areas of un- 
satisfactory property on a comprehensive scale, went much further to 
meet the special circumstances of London and other large cities where 
land is very dear, because it graduated State assistance according 
to the cost of the sites used for rehousing, starting with a basic 
annual subsidy of £6 a dwelling for 40 years as regards sites costing 
between £1,500 and £4,000 an acre when redeveloped, and increasing 
the subsidy by £l a dwelling for each additional £1,000 or part of 
£1,000 up to £6,000 an acre, and thereafter by £l a dwelling for each 
additional £2,000, or part of £2,000. On the other hand, local 
authorities’ statutory contributions towards the loss were made half 
that of the State, so that as the State contribution rose, local 
authorities’ contributions rose also. The principle of a 2 : 1 relation- 
ship between the contributions made by the State and the ratepayer 
under the Act of 1924, which was departed from under the Act of 
1980, was thus renewed under the Act of 1935. 

For accommodation erected under the Act of 1985 on sites costing 
not more than £1,500 an acre, a smaller State subsidy may be granted 
at the discretion of the Minister of Health, for twenty years only. In 
deciding as to a local authority’s eligibility for this subsidy, the 
Minister is required to have regard to its existing and prospective 
housing burdens in relation to financial resources. At the present 
time the estimated annual deficiencies (for 20 years) on the Council’s 
operations at cottage estates, where the cost of land is lower than at 
block dwelling estates, vary from £10 2s. 3d. a dwelling at Motting- 
ham, to £4 17s. 6d. at Hanwell. 

Revision of subsidies 

As already shown, the State subsidy under the Act of 1919 was 
withdrawn except for schemes approved or houses included in 
tenders up to 14th July, 1921. 

The State subsidies for additional houses under the Acts of 1923 
and 1924 were reduced for houses completed after 80th September, 
1927, as indicated in the foregoing table. The subsidy under the 



HOUSING FINANCE 


285 


former Act was abolished for any houses completed after 80th 
September, 1929. In the case of the 1924 Act, subsidy was 
eventually limited to houses covered by proposals submitted to 
the Minister by 7th December, 1982, but a concession was made to 
the Council as regards certain houses completed by 80th June, 1984. 

The Act of 1930 provided for a review of the amount of the subsidy 
by the Minister of Health after 1st October, 1938, and for further 
reviews at triennial intervals thereafter. The Minister, however, 
has refrained from taking action yet in this direction and the Housing 
Act, 1985, postponed the first review until October, 1987, so that 
the present subsidies are assured for all houses erected under the 
Act of 1930 and 1935 up to 31st March, 1938. 

Control of housing expenditure 

Reference is made in Chapter VII to the Council’s policy of 
enlisting the services of master contractors for the development of 
large cottage estates such as Becontree^ and Bellingham. The 
Council financed the work and paid the whole of the cost, the 
contractor receiving a fee by way of percentage of cost. Later this 
method was varied, unit prices being agreed in advance with the 
contractor for roads and sewers, and a lump sum price for houses. 

The total work done was priced out at these rates and called the 
“ value.” The contractor was paid a standard fee by way of percent- 
age on this figure. In addition, if the total actual cost was less 
than the value the contractor was paid a bonus. If cost exceeded 
value, his fee was diminished. 

This method was also used for the development of Downham, 
and Watling, Castelnau, Wormholt, St. Helierj, and other cottage 
estates. 

Block dwelling estates have been developed under ordinary fixed 
price contracts. 

In the earlier post-war years, when local authorities’ annual liabilities 
for losses were strictly limited, the control exercised by the Minister 
of Health over housing schemes was detailed and rigorous, and ex- 
tended to supervision and criticism of site and building costs, rents 
and outgoings, with consequential disallowance of items of expendi- 
ture in many cases. Limits were imposed on the amounts to be 
charged for supervision and to be transferred to the Repairs Fund, 
the Minister’s allowance as regards the latter being lower than the 
Council and many other local authorities considered necessary to 
equalise the expenditure on repairs over the life of the dwellings. 
As State assistance under the later Housing Acts was gradually 
changed in character so as definitely to limit the amount of the 
contribution towards each house or flat, the extent of detailed 
financial control by the Minister of Health over local authorities’ 
housing operations tended to be reduced. 

With the exception of loan charges on capital expenditure, all 
factors involved in the computation of the annual loss on the Council’s 
operations under the Act of 1919 have been recently stabilised by 
agreement with the Minister of Health and a similar process is 




236 


HOUSING 


contemplated for slum clearance and rehousing operations under 
the Act of 1923 as soon as the appropriate time arrives. 

Cost of sites in central areas 

It is not perhaps generally realised how large a proportion of the 
total cost of rehousing in central areas in London is represented by 
expenditure on acquisition of the site. The following figures which 
relate to actual areas in course of clearance and development by 
the Council serve to demonstrate how large a proportion of the total 
cost of each new dwelling erected on the areas is represented by the 
cost of the land. 



Capital cost per dwelling 


Estate 

Buildings 

Site 

Total 


£ 

£ 

£ 

A 

435 

122 

557 

B 

45C> 

126 

582 

C 

425 

198 

623 

D 

5T0 

361 

931 

E 

573 

375 

948 


The site cost shown above is the full expense of acquisition, the 
term “ housing value ” (see page 231) having lost significance in 
post-war years. In post-war years it has usually been impossible 
for the rents to cover the loan charges on the cost of buildings, 
leaving no margin towards meeting loan charges on the cost of site. 

Consolidation of housing accounts 

The Act of 1935 required the establishment, as from 1st April, 1935, 
of a Consolidated Housing Revenue Account to which must be carried 
the annual transactions in respect of virtually all post-war housing 
operations of the Council. 

The CounciPs Housing Accounts arc consequently divided into 
two parts, viz,y (1) the statutory Revenue Account comprising all the 
Council’s own post-war activities under the Housing Acts (Housing 
Revenue Account No. 1), and (2) a section relating mainly to the 
Council’s pre-war housing operations and other items which have to 
be excluded from the statutory Revenue Account, e.g,^ contributions 
to schemes of Metropolitan Borough Councils, housing associations, 
etc. (Housing Revenue Account No. 2). 

It is no longer necessary for the Council to record separately the 
financial results of housing operations according to the individual 
Housing Acts (1919, 1928, 1924, 1930, etc.), under which they have 
been subsidised. The transactions relating to the houses at 
Becontree, for example, will in future be shown in toto instead of 
under four different Acts as hitherto. Having, with the acquiescence 
of the Minister of Health, followed throughout a more or less uniform 
policy in fixation of rents, the Council was unaffected by the unifi- 
cation of conditions which the Act introduced in this regard, but the 
simplification of accounts resulting from consolidation is an admini- 
strative advantage of some importance. 

All State subsidies receivable on the conditions set out in the 
1935 Act are credited to the statutory Revenue Account and are con- 
tingent on the Council making prescribed contributions to this 
Account from the rates. Until the institution of the new Account 




HOUSING FINANCE 


237 


in 1985-36 the Council’s policy was to charge the rates with the 
balance of the actual deficiency for the year on each subsidy scheme 
after crediting the relative State assistance. 

The statutory rate contributions to be made by the Council to 
the new Account are as follows : — 

Assisted (1919) scheme. — Produce of a rate of Id. in the £, plus 
loan charges on any capital expenditure which the Minister 
of Health has refused to allow to rank for State assistance. 

Assisted (1923) scheme. — 

(a) Clearance and rehousing — Amount equal to State 
assistance, plus loan charges on non-ranking capital 
expenditure. 

(b) Additional accommodation — Amount equal to State 
assistance (£6 a house for 20 years). 

Assisted (1924) scheme. — £4 10s.(or £3 15s.) a dwelling for 40 years. 

Assisted (1930) scheme. — £3 15s. a dwelling for 40 years. 

Assisted (1935) scheme. — One half the amount of the State 
assistance; a dwelling for 40 years. 

Whilst the Act of 1935 prescribed that certain of the rate contri- 
butions should be paid into the Account over a term of sixty years 
from the completion of the dwellings, the Minister of Health, having 
regard to the Council’s practice of spreading loan charges on the 
uneconomic housing expenditure (vtz.^ the capital equivalent of the 
State assistance and the prescribed rate contribution) over the same 
period as the State assistance is payable, has agreed that the Council’s 
rate contributions shall also be provided over the same period as the 
subsidy, so that the houses and dwellings may be self-supporting 
at the end of the subsidy period. In aggregate, the same extent of 
rate contributions is made, but the arrangement avoids the necessity 
for keeping a Housing Equalisation Account which the Act would 
otherwise require to be set up. 

The new consolidation provisions have little, if any, effect on 
the amount of the burden falling on the London ratepayer of to-day, 
because they do not increase the amount of the State assistance 
towards existing operations, and, after the prescribed rate contri- 
butions have been made, any deficit on the statutory Revenue 
Account must be met, without limit, out of the rates in the financial 
year in which the deficit arises. This is called the ‘‘ additional 
contribution.” Consolidation will, however, effect some variation of 
the relative burdens which have hitherto fallen on the general and 
special county rates. 

If, in total, the standard contributions for any one year prove 
to exceed the actual deficit, the surplus may be applied first to 
reimburse the rates any “additional contributions” made to meet 
deficits on the statutory Revenue Account during the preceding 
four years. At quinquennial intervals, commencing at March, 1940, 
however, the position of the statutory Revenue Account must be 
reviewed. Any surplus remaining after the rates have been reim- 
bursed, any “ additional contributions ” may, with the consent of 




288 


HOUSING 


the Minister of Health, be transferred to the Housing Repairs 
Account (which is the new statutory name for the Council’s former 
Repairs and Renewals Fund), or it may be carried forward to the 
statutory Revenue Account of the next financial year. Any surplus 
not disposed of in one or other of these ways must be divided between 
the Council and the Minister of Health in proportion to the relative 
total contributions from the rates and the Exchequer during the 
five years ending on the date in which the surplus is shown. 

The annual charge on the rates 

The Council’s accounts for the year 1935-36 show that, after 
crediting the Housing Account with State subsidies totalling £820,886 
and statutory rate contributions of £434,706, an “ additional con- 
tribution ” of £31,854 was required from the rates. 

The possibility of effecting equilibrium between annual losses and 
the statutory amounts of assistance from public funds is to some 
extent outside the Council’s control. Much depends on the amount 
of subsidised and non-subsidised housing carried out, the types and 
density of dwellings, variations in cost of land and buildings, the 
prevailing rate of interest, the general level of rents, and the proba- 
bility of continuance of State subsidies at their present level. In the 
years immediately ahead allowance must also be made for the loss 
arising from development operations prior to the completion of 
dwellings, during which period there is no income from rents or from 
the Exchequer, and no statutory contributions have to be made 
from the rates. 

The CounciVs commitments 

By requiring each local authority to survey the extent of slum 
areas within its locality, to clear these areas and to provide the 
necessary rehousing within a period originally intended by the 
Minister of Health to be limited to five years, the Act of 1930 imposed 
on the Council, in common with other local authorities, a huge 
financial commitment. In view of the size of the problem in London 
a period of ten years was envisaged for its solution, as explained 
at more length in Chapter II, and it was estimated that a total outlay 
of not less than 35 million pounds would be involved. 

Before, however, the slum clearance programme under the 1980 
Act had been long under way, the Act of 1935 placed a further 
financial burden on local housing authorities by making them 
responsible for providing the additional houses necessary to abate 
overcrowding under that Act. 

As explained in Chapter V, however, the problem of abatement 
of overcrowding is partly one of re-allocation of existing housing 
accommodation, and no reliable indication can yet be given of the 
numbers of new dwellings which the Council will need to build before 
overcrowding under existing standards will have been eliminated. 
Whilst no estimate of the capital cost of the programme for the 
ahat^ent of overcrowding can be given, much will depend on the 
relative extent to which the new dwellings have to be provided 
in the central areas and on the outer cottage estates. 




HOUSING FINANCE 


289 


The 1985 Act also empowered local authorities to deal with large 
areas of unsatisfactory housing character by means of redevelopment 
procedure, the adoption of which in London, to any considerable 
extent, will involve further very large expenditure. 

It is proposed to deal experimentally with an area of about 46 
acres in Bethnal Green as a redevelopment area, at an estimated 
capital cost of some £1,750,000, but this figure covers some outlay 
which would otherwise be incurred under the slum clearance and 
overcrowding programmes, and until experience has been obtained 
of redevelopment procedure it is not possible to assess the financial 
consequences. These proposals are discussed in detail in Chapter IV. 

Pre-war and post-war housing in total 

The aggregate capital expenditure by the Council and its pre- 
decessors on housing operations of every kind up to 31st March, 1986, 
had amounted to £47,669,424 and the net debt outstanding at that 
date was £43,045,987. Commitments in "prospect may well exceed 
the aggregate expenditure to date. But, though the imposing 
figures of capital outlay on housing have been and will remain 
a serious problem in relation to financing requirements, the net 
annual burden on the rates is relatively small. The total charge 
which housing imposed on the county rate in 1935-36 was £449,827, 
equivalent to about 2d. in the £. Including operations by the City 
Corporation and Metropolitan Borough Councils, this annual charge 
would have been increased to about 3d. in the £ if spread over the 
whole county. 

Financial relations between the Council and Metropolitan Borough 

Councils 

Various Housing Acts have empowered the Council on the one 
hand, and the City Corporation and the Metropolitan Borough 
Councils on the other, to make mutual contributions towards 
expenses incurred in connection with any of their housing activities, 
including schemes for the relief of overcrowding and for dealing 
with redevelopment areas. 

It has already been mentioned that the Act of 1919 limited to the 
net produce of a rate of Id. in the pound the annual liability of the 
London ratepayer towards meeting deficiencies on schemes carried 
out under that Act. The City Corporation deals direct with the Govern- 
ment as regards its deficiencies under the Act which, however, provided 
that the whole of such deficiencies on schemes carried out by Metro- 
politan Borough Councils should be refunded to them by the Council, 
which consequently retains the whole of the State subsidy under the 
Act. But under mutual arrangements, as explained in Chapter IX, 
the Council also makes annual contributions to Metropolitan 
Borough Councils in respect of their operations under the Acts of 
1923, 1924, 1980 and 1935. Conversely, certain Metropolitan 
Borough Councils make contributions to the Council in respect of 
new accommodation provided by the Council and specially reserved 
for persons whom they themselves have displaced but cannot rehouse. 


240 


HOUSING 


The amount of the Council’s assistance under the Acts of 1923 and 
1924 was expressly contingent on the extent of the ascertained 
deficiencies, but, as operations of Metropolitan Borough Councils 
under these two Acts are now completed, the Council’s contributions, 
which run for the same periods as the State subsidies, are virtually 
stabilised. 

As regards the clearance of the smaller slum areas by Metro- 
politan Borough Councils under the Act of 1930 the Council makes 
a fixed contribution of one-half the statutory rate contribution 
(at present £l 17s. 6d. a dwelling for 40 years) in approved cases. 
A similar contribution is expected from Metropolitan Borough 
Councils in cases where rehousing obligations of their own schemes 
are satisfied by the Council. 

With regard to the relief of overcrowding, the Housing Act, 1935, 
placed on the Council the onus of providing the accommodation 
required, but Metropolitan Borough Councils may, with the Council’s 
concurrence, provide the necessary rehousing themselves. In 
such cases the Council has decided to be responsible for one-half 
of the statutory rate contribution required under the Act. 
Normally no contribution towards meeting deficiencies is expected 
from Metropolitan Borough Councils in cases where the Council 
itself provides the accommodation, unless any houses are specifically 
reserved for a Metropolitan Borough Council at one of the Council’s 
cottage estates, in which event a contribution of £l 17s. 6d. a 
dwelling for 40 years is required. 

The expenditure by the Council in the year 1935-36 on supplemental 
contributions to Metropolitan Borough Councils amounted to 
£16,378. 

Assistance to private enterprise 

No State grants are now payable direct to private enterprise, but 
in approved cases where assistance has been granted by the Council, 
whether by way of lump sum (a form of assistance which was only 
payable under the Act of 1923 and has long ceased) or periodic 
contribution, the State makes annual grants to the C'ouncil not 
exceeding the amounts which it would have paid had the Council 
itself provided the accommodation. These sums are transmitted 
by the Council to the persons providing the houses. 

An aggregate of £152,762 has been paid by the Council in capital 
grants to private enterprise under the Act of 1923, but the annual 
grants in 1935-36 amounted to £2,558 only. Annual grants by the 
Council under the Act of 1924 amounted to £11,429 in 1935-36 
and are payable almost entirely to public utility societies and 
philanthropic bodies. 

Under the Act of 1930, housing associations (which include the 
bodies formerly known as public utility societies) carrying out schemes 
of rehousing approved in all respects by the Council receive, in 
addition to the equivalent of the State grant, supplemental contribu- 
tions from the Council towards the estimated annual loss up to a 
limit of £1 17s. 6d. a dwelling for 40 years. These contributions 



HOUSING FINANCE 


241 


are subject to review in the light of any permanent alteration in 
circumstances as revealed by the audited accounts. Schemes had 
been approved up to 31st December, 1936, for the provision of 
1,331 dwellings by housing associations, etc., in connection with the 
slum clearance programme, with financial assistance from the 
Council. 

The total amount of the Council’s grants to housing associations, 
etc*., in the year 1935-36 was £18,716. 

Guarantees of advances by building societies 

Under the Housing (Financial Provisions) Act, 1933, which 
abolished the State grants under the Act of 1924 for any further 
houses erected, local authorities arc empowered to guarantee 
repayment of portions of advances made to private persons by 
building societies for the erection or acquisition of houses. Up to 
the present no assistance has been granted by the Council by way 
of guarantee. 

Loans to Metropolitan Borough Councils, Housing Associations and 

private persons 

Under powers conferred at the time by the Housing (Additional 
Powers) Act, 1919, the Council decided in 1920 to issue local bonds 
carrying interest at 6 per cent, for the financing of housing schemes. 
This high rate of interest, which was fixed by the Treasury, had 
to be offered owing to the condition of the money market. As a 
result £3,955,605 was then raised, and the net proceeds were passed 
over to Metropolitan Borough Councils to finance their housing 
ojierations. The bonds were issued for relatively short terms, and 
a large proportion has now been repaid or converted into bonds 
bearing lower rates of interest. 

Apart from this sum, over £6,000,000 has been advanced by the 
C’ouncil to Metropolitan Borough Councils for housing purposes 
since the War out of other resources. Since April, 1934, the rate of 
interest charged on such loans for housing schemes has been J per 
cent, lower than on loans for other purposes. 

Under the Housing Acts, 1925 to 1935, the Council has advanced 
to housing associations sums amounting up to March, 1936, to 
about £550,000 for the erection of dwellings. Loans have been made 
to thirteen bodies, and in some cases have covered more than one 
scheme. The present rate for advances is 3| per cent. 

The Housing Acts, 1923 to 1935, empowered the Council to make 
advances to private persons for the purchase or building of new 
houses. Advances must not exceed 90 per cent, of the Council’s 
valuation of the properties concerned, which are generally situate 
within the county. In a few cases, also, advances have been made 
to builders to enable them to erect houses for sale or for letting at 
rents approved by the Council. The total advances under the 
Housing Acts to private persons and builders up to 31st March, 
1936, amounted to £4,411,630. 



242 


HOUSING 


Under the Small Dwellings Acquisition Acts, the Council has also 
made advances to persons desiring to acquire houses for occupation. 
Advances of this nature were first authorised under the Act of 1899 
but comparatively few applications were received up to 1923, since 
when nearly £800,000 has been advanced. 

The maximum period for repayment of advances to private 
persons is : 20 years under the Housing Acts and 30 years under 
the Small Dwellings Acquisition Acts. The rate of interest on 
current advances is 3| per cent. Some Metropolitan Borough 
Councils have adopted the Small Dwellings Acquisition Acts and in 
these boroughs advances under these Acts may be made by the 
Borough Council only and not by the London County Council. 

Aggregate housing capital expenditure"^’ 

Late Metropolitan Board of Works and London County Council 
from 1856 to 1936. 

£ 


Aggregate expenditure to 31st March, 1914 

5,585,075* 

Expenditure in year 

1914-15 

136,150 

»> 

99 

1915-16 

63,224 

»» 

99 

1916-17 

21,835 

>> 

99 

1917-18 

3,992 


99 

1918-19 

547 

»> 

99 

1919-20 

150,520 


99 

1920-21 

1,645,624 

?> 

99 

1921-22 

4,731,070 


99 

1922-23 

2,247,108 


99 

1923-24 

903,719 


99 

1924-25 

1,363,918 


99 

1925-26 

2,505,280 

>> 

99 

1926-27 

3,613,563 


99 

1927-28 

5,547,197 

5» 

99 

1928-29 

3,220,891 

5> 

99 

1929-30 

2,042,941 

JJ 

99 

1930-31 

2,835,618 

9f 

99 

1931-32 

3,161,304 

»f 

99 

1932-33 

1,274,860 

9* 

99 

1933-34 

1,466,127 

99 

99 

1934-35 

2,022,113 

99 

99 

1935-36 

3,126,748 

99 

99 

1936-37 

4,750,000t 



Total 

52,419,424 


* Working-class Dwellings £3,021,913, Clearance (less credits for housing values 
of sites) £2,563,162. t Partly estimated. 




CHAPTER XIII 

TRANSPORT IN RELATION TO HOUSING 


It will be appreciated that the provision of cheap travelling 
facilities for persons of the working classes and others who need to 
travel daily to work is a matter of great importance from the housing 
point of view, particularly in an area of the size of Greater London. 
The existence of such facilities enables workers to live at a distance 
from their work in open and healthy surroundings, and thereby 
relieves the pressure on central areas. 


Daily movement to reach place of employment 

At the Census of 1921 particulars were obtained of the relationship 
between place of residence and place of employment, but similar 
information was not obtained at the Census of 1931. The figures 
for 1921 showed that of the total of 2,173,691 occupied persons 
resident in the Administrative County of London (including 251,438 
with no fixed workplace or workplace not stated), 960,396 worked 
in London outside the Metropolitan Borough in which they resided, 
and that 96,658 went outside London to work, 68,051 of the latter 
going to Outer London districts (that is, outside London but within 
the Metropolitan Police District). The inward movement to London 
amounted to 607,937, including 474,865 from Outer London districts. 
These figures give some indication of the numbers of persons who, 
in 1921, found it necessary, in order to reach their place of employ- 
ment, to make a journey daily within the County or across the 
County boundary. 

Since 1921 there has been an outward movement of population 
from the County, and the Census figures show that, in the period 
1921-31, this movement resulted in London’s population decreasing 
by about 330,000. The outflow was no doubt mainly to Outer 
London, the population of which increased by migration during the 
period by about 600,000. Members of many families which 
move from London to Outer London continue to work in London 
and it seems that the number of persons crossing the County boundary 
daily to work in London has increased considerably since 1921. 

It may be mentioned, too, that of the 63,000 dwellings provided 
by the London County Council since the War up to 31st March, 1936, 
about 41,500 or two-thirds were built in Outer London, and that in 
most cases these out-county dwellings were occupied by London 
families, many of whose wage earners continued to be occupied in 
London. 

It will be convenient to refer to the travelling facilities available 
to workers under the heads of (i) railways, (2) tramways and trolley- 
buses, and (3) omnibuses and coaches. Except as regards the 
suburban lines of the trunk railways, the passenger transport 
services in an area extending considerably beyond the Metropolitan 
Police District have since 1st July, 1983, been in the hands of the 
London Passenger Transport Board, created by the London Passenger 
Transport Act, 1933. 

( 243 ) 


B 



‘244 


HOUSING 


Railways 

The suburban branches of the main line railways and the railways 
of the London Passenger Transport Board provide the means of 
transport most utilised by persons who have to travel several miles 
to reach their places of employment. 

Since the War the main line railwry companies have not eon- 
stnicted any considerable length of new line in the London area, the 
chief additions being the Wimbledon to Sutton line (5 J miles) opened 
by the Southern Railway Company in 1929 and 1930, and the Ealing 
and Shepherd’s Bush line (4| miles) of the Great Western Railway, 
opened in 1920 as an extension of the Central London Railway. The 
services have, however, been much im})roved, j^articularly as the 
result of electrification of the lines. This applies especially to the 
Southern Railway, the liondou suburban lines of which are now 
wholly electrified, the change from steam to electric traction having 
been carried out mainly since the War. Also, following the construc- 
tion of additional tracks by the London and North Western Railway 
Company (now absorbed in the London Midland and Scottish Railway 
Company), through electric trains from Watford to the Bakerloo 
tube commenced running during the War, and electric trains from 
Watford commenced running to Euston in 1922. The London 
Midland and Scottish Railway Company has also constructed new 
tracks, which have enabled through electric trains to be run since 
1932 from Upminster to Barking and thence to Bow and over the 
Metropolitan District line to Central and West London. Similarly the 
construction by the Great W'estern Railway Company of the Ealing 
and Shepherd’s Bush line above referred to enables a through service 
of electric trains to be run from Ealing Broadway via the Central 
London Railway to Liverpool Street. 

The extensions of the tube railways carried out since the M'ar 
include the following : — 

Miles 

1923-4 Golders Green to Edgware 4-7 

1926 Clapham Common to Morden 5-2 

1982-3 Finsbury Park to Cockfosters 7-7 

In addition, following the reconstruction of the City and South 
London Railway, the construction of new connecting lines, etc., 
through services over different branches of the London Underground 
Railways have been introduced, among which the following may be 
mentioned : — 

1924 Between the City and South London Railway and the 
Hampstead tube (London Electric Railway) via extension 
from Euston to Camden Town. 

1926 Between the City and South London Railway and the 
Hampstead tube via Kennington extension. 

1982 By Piccadilly line trains (London Electric Railway) over 
the Metropolitan District Railway to South Harrow via 
Hammersmith. 



TRANSPORT IN RELATION TO HOUSING 245 


1933 By Piccadilly line trains over the Metropolitan District 
Railway to Northfields (and subsequently to Hounslow) 
via Hammersmith. 

1933 Extension over the Metropolitan Railway from South 
Harrow to Uxbridge, of the through service of Piccadilly 
line trains running over the Metropolitan District Railway 
to South Harrow via Hammersmith (above referred to). 

As regards the Metropolitan Railway, the Riekmansworth-Watford 
line, which lies outside the Metropolitan Police District and is vested 
jointly in the Metropolitan and the London and North Eastern 
Railway Companies, was opened in 1925, and an extension from 
Wembley Park to Stanmore was opened in 1932. 

It will be seen, therefore, that on the railways as a whole in the 
London area considerable improvements have taken place since the 
War. These changes have been made either with a view to opening 
up new areas or have been necessitated by housing development 
along the line of existing railways, and are thus closely connected 
with the housing question. 


As regards fares, schedules of standard fares on the four main line 
railways were approved by the Railway Rates Tribunal under the 
Railways Act, 1921, on 6th July, 1927. The standard fares are 
maxima, and in practice lower fares arc often charged. 


The standard charges for ordinary (third class), workmen’s and 
season tickets (third class) are as follows : — 


Ordinary fares — 

Third class ... ... ... ... ... l|d. a mile 


Workmen’s fares — 

For each return journey where the single 
journey does not exceed 1 mile ... 

For the next 3 miles (single) 

For the next 6 miles (single) 

For the next 10 miles (single) 

For the remainder of the distance 


2d. 

Id. a mile 
fd. a mile 
Jd. a mile 
Jd. a mile 


(For both ordinary and workmen’s fares fractions of a mile 
consisting of one-half or less (single) are to be reckoned as half a 
mile and fractions of a mile exceeding one-half are to be reckoned 
as one mile.) 




246 


HOUSING 


Season ticket rates — 3 months third class — 

£ s. d. 


Up to 1 mile 1 

For the next 2 miles 
For the next 7 miles 
For the next 5 miles 
For the next 15 miles 


0 0 

7 6a mile 
5 0a mile 
4 6 a mile 

3 0 a mile 


(Fractions of a mile consisting of less than one-half are to be 
disregarded and fractions of a mile consisting of one-half or more 
are to be reckoned as one mile.) 

The standard fares thus fixed for various distances are given in 
\ he following table : — 


Third <‘luss seanott ticket 


Ordinary 
3rd Class 
rotnrri fare 


W^)rkman’s 
return fare 


3 nioidhs 


Average daily 
cost assiuning 
75 return journeys 
per quarter 




s. 

d. 

s. 

d. 

£ 

s. 

d. 

s. 

d. 

1 mile 

0 

3 

0 

2 

1 

0 

0 

0 

3-2 

2 miles 

0 

6 

0 

3 

1 

7 

6 

0 

4-4 

3 

ft 

0 

« 

0 

4 

1 

15 

0 

0 

5*6 

4 

if 

1 

0 

0 

5 

2 

0 

0 

0 

6-4 

5 

9f 

1 

3 

0 

0 

2 

5 

0 

0 

7-2 

6 

99 

1 

6 

0 


2 

10 

0 

0 

8-0 

7 

99 

1 

9 

0 


2 

15 

0 

0 

8-8 

8 


2 

0 

0 

8 

3 

0 

0 

0 

9'6 

10 

99 

2 

0 

0 

U 

3 

10 

0 

0 

11-2 

12 

99 

3 

0 

0 lOi 

3 

19 

0 

1 

0-6 

14 

99 

3 

6 

0 Hi 

4 

8 

0 

1 

21 

16 

99 

4 

0 

1 

oi 

4 

15 

6 

1 

3-3 

20 

99 

5 

0 

1 

n 

5 

7 

6 

1 

5-2 

24 


6 

0 

1 


5 

19 

6 

1 

71 

30 


7 

6 

1 

5 

6 

17 

6 

1 

100 


On the Metropolitan Railway the maximum fares are the standard 
fares fixed by the Railway Rates Tribunal for the main line railways. 
This railway did not in 1921 form part of the Underground system 
which then comprised the tube railways and the Metropolitan 
District Railway, and it was treated specially in the Railways Act, 
1921. 

On the tubes and Metropolitan District Railway, the maximum 
ordinary fare is Id. a mile, and workmen’s tickets are issued at the 
ordinary single fare for the return journey, with a minimum of 3d. 
Season ticket rates are as a rule below the standard rates applying to 
the main line railways. Generally speaking, fares on the Underground 
system compare favourably with those charged on the main line 
railways in the London area. 

Cheap day tickets available after 9.30 or 10.0 a.m. at substantial 
reductions down to single fare for the return journey are issued from 
many suburban stations to central London and provide cheap 
transport for occasional journeys by local residents travelling after 
the peak traffic is over. 



TRANSPORT IN RELATION TO HOUSING 247 


Tramways and trolley buses 

The London Passenger Transport Board’s policy is to substitute 
trolley buses for tramways, continuing the policy of the Underground 
Company on its London United Tramways, on the Twickenham- 
Teddington section of which the trolley bus was introduced in 1981, 
Since then other routes have been converted and the Board has 
obtained powers to substitute trolley bus routes for tramways on 
nearly all the out-county routes in its area, on out-lying routes in 
the west of London, and on routes running to Central London from 
the North and North-West. Statutory obligations relating to fares 
applying to tramways are transferred to the substituted trolley buses. 

The fares charged were maintained when the tramways were 
transferred to the Board and, generally speaking, have not since 
been altered. On those tramways which previously belonged to the 
London County Council, the ordinary fares charged are at the rate 
of Id. for about 1*2 miles, but for the longer distances they are at 
a lower rate, and return tickets are issued at less than double the 
single fares. The workmen’s fares are 2d., 4d. and 6d. return, these 
being with some exceptions the ordinary fares for the single journey. 
Cheap midday fares are also charged. On the other tramway systems 
transferred, ordinary and workmen’s fares were charged on somewhat 
similar lines. 

The tramways provide travelling facilities for workmen at some- 
what cheaper rates than the railways, but for the longer distances 
this is offset by the extra time taken for the journey. 

Omnibuses and coaches 

Omnibuses carry about double the number of passengers carried by 
tramways and trolley buses in the London area, but a large number 
are short distance passengers in the central area. On the 
omnibuses the same ordinary single and return fares and cheap 
midday fares are generally charged as on the tramways along the 
same routes, but where there arc no tramways return and cheap 
midday tickets are not issued and the single fares are generally on 
the basis of Id. per mile. Workmen’s tickets are not issued. Omni- 
buses provide, however, a valuable means of transport for persons 
who do not have to reach their workplaces by 8 a.m., after which 
hour they cannot, as a rule, make the forward journey with workmen’s 
tickets on the railways or tramways. 

Coaches also provide a means of transport for persons who have 
to travel considerable distances. 

Proposed transport improvements 

By agreement between the London Passenger Transport Board, 
the London and North Eastern Railway Company and the Great 
Western Railway Company, an extensive programme of railway 
and other transport improvements in the London area is to be 
carried out, and by the London Passenger Transport (Agreement) 




248 


HOUSING 


Act, 1935, the Treasury is authorised to guarantee securities up to 
£40,000,000 to be issued in respect of the scheme of improvements. 

The programme referred to, wliich is to be carried out within five 
years from 30th September, 1935, covers the following main 
])roposals : — 

(1) The electrification of the London and North Eastern 
Line from Liv(‘rpool-street to Shenfield, and also of the 
Loughton and Grange-hill Loop branches, and the construction 
of a tube railway extending the Central London Railway from 
Liverpool -street to connect with the Loughton and Grange-hill 
Loop lines. 

(2) The electrification of the London and North Eastern 
Railway suburban lines from Finsbury Park to Edgwarc, High 
Barnet and Alexandra Pahn^e, and the extension of the Ilighgate 
tube to Finchley and of the Northern City tube for a short 
distance at Finsbury Park to connect with these electrified 
lines. 

(3) The construction and electrification ol‘ two additional 
tracks to the Great Western Railway from North Acton to 
Ruislij). 

The Government guarantee also eovers the re-alignmcnt of tracks 
and improvements to stations on the Metropolitan llailway between 
Finchley-road and Harrow, the construction of a tube railway 
connection between Finchley-road and Baker-street comu'cting the 
Metropolitan Railway main line with the Bakerloo tube, and the 
reconstruction of the junctions and station at Aldgate East, which 
will enable trains from the Metropolitan line, in addition to those? 
already running from the District line, to be projected to Barking 
and Upminster, as well as the substitution of trolley buses for tramcars 
on not less than 148 route miles of tramways. 

In addition, the London Passenger Transport Board has obtained 
power to widen the tracks between Harrow and Rickmansworth, and 
it is proposed to extend the electrified line, which at present ends at 
Rickmansworth, as far as Amersham. 

The carrying out of this programme will improve the facilities 
available from certain districts already developed, and it should tend 
to prevent families returning to the congested central area rather 
than suffer daily the discomfort and inconvenience of the journey to 
and from London under present conditions. From the housing point 
of view, however, its effect in leading to the dcveloprhcnt of some 
new areas is of greater importance. 

Cost oj transport from the CounciVs principal cottage estates 

In order to give some indication of the expenditure which may have 
to be incurred for travelling, the daily workmen’s return fares and 
three-monthly season ticket rates on the railways to the central area 



TRANSPORT IN RELATION TO HOUSING 249 


from the London County Council’s principal cottage estates, both 
inside and outside the County, are shown in the following table : — 

Railway Fares 


From 

To 

j Distance 

Workmen’s 

return 

Season 
ticket rate 
(3 months, 



1 

faro 

3rd Class) 



i Miles 

d. 

£ 

s. 

d. 

Bkcontrke. 







Barking ... 

1 Fenchiirch-street 

i(' 

8 

2 

16 

9 

Becontree ... 
Dagenham J 

(or Mark-lane). 

1 ui 

10^ 

3 

3 

1 

5 

3 

6 

Chadwell-heath . . . 

Liverpool -street 

10 

10 

(a)3 11 

3 

Bellingham. 







Catford ... 1 

Bellingham J 

Victoria 

s 

;i 0 

8 

9 

3 

3 

0 

7 

0 

0 

Catford-bridgc 

: I^ondon-bridge 

: 5-j 


3 

0 

0 

>» • • • 

C'astelnau. 


('haring Cross 

1 

8 ! 

3 

0 

0 







Hammersmith 

Downham. 

Charing Cross 

5i 

4 

2 

2 

6 

(irove-park 

London-bridge 

7 

8 ' 

3 

10 

0 

,, 

('haring Cross 

9 

9 

3 

10 

0 

NOIIBUIIY. 






Norbury ... 

Victoria 

n 

8 

2 

15 

0 

Old Oak. 

London-bridge 

9 

9 

3 

3 

0 

h^ast Acton 

( )xford-eireus 

•H 

r> 

2 

8 

0 

,, ... 

Bank 


7 

2 

15 

6 

Bokhampton. 







Barnes 

Waterloo ... 

7 


2 

15 

0 

St. Helieh. 

Morden 

Charing Cross 

9 

6 

3 

2 

6 

St. HeJier ... 

Bank 

91 

6 

3 

2 

6 

I lolborn-viaduct 

m 

8 

3 

3 

9 

Totterdown-fields . 







Trinity-road 

Charing Cross 

6 

5 i 

2 

10 

0 

,, ... 

Bank 

; 

5 

2 

12 

6 

VVatling. 







Burnt Oak 

Charing Cross 

10 

7 

3 

2 

6 

Mill Hill 

W HITE H ART-I.ANE . 

St. Pancras... 


! 

3 

1 

3 

White Hart- lane 


j 

7 :(a)2 17 

9 

Bruce-grove 
Noel-park and 

-j Liverpool-street 

i 

\[ n I 

7 !(a)2 11 

7 j(a)2 15 

3 

3 

Wood-green 

: 





Wood-green 

WORMIIOLT. 

: Piccadilly-circus 

7 

9 I 

1 

3 

2 

6 

Wood-lane 

Oxford-circus 

4 i 

4 i 

1 

17 

6 


(a) 2nd Class, 

From Bellingham, Downham, Norbury, Totterdown-fields and 
White Hart-lane, the central area can be reached by tramway, the 
workmen’s fare being 6d. return and the ordinary fare 8d. or 9d. 
return. The journey takes about f hour. 

Omnibus services run from the neighbourhood of all the cottage 
estates to the central area. The cost of a return journey by omnibus 
to the central area from the above-mentioned estates not served by 
tramways is not less than 8d. 




250 


HOUSING 


Action taken by the London County Council 

The London County Council has frequently taken action with a 
view to obtaining cheap travelling facilities both for the public 
generally and with special regard to the needs of tenants on its 
housing estates. It was mainly instrumental in securing, by the 
judgment of the Railway Rates Tribunal in 1927, a considerable 
reduction in the railway companies’ proposed standard workmen’s 
fares. As regard its own estates, the extension from Barking to 
Upminster of the Metropolitan District Railway service across the 
Becontree Estate may be mentioned as having been secured 
largely as a result of pressure by the Council. The question of 
transport facilities and fares is. closely watched, and representations 
are made by the Council from time to time for such imj^rovements as 
arc considered to be necessary or desirable. 



APPENDIX I 


Housing Act, 1936 — Summaby of the Act 

The Housing Act, 1936, which came into force on 1st January, 1937, reproduces 
in a consolidated form the permanent law relating to the housing of the working 
classes in England and Wales. Certain financial and other provisions relating 
to State-assisted housing schemes which have been brought to a close, and some 
other minor provisions, are not incorporated in the Act and are left outstanding. 
The following is a brief summary of the principal provisions of the Act, which 
consists of eight Parts (191 sections) and 12 Schedules. Copies of the Act may 
be purchased from H.M. Stationery Office, Adastral House, Kingsway, London, 
W.C.2, or through any bookseller at the price of 3s. a copy. 

Part I — Local authorities for the purposes of the Act 

Generally throughout the country the local authorities are the councils of the 
boroughs, urban districts and rural districts. The local authority for the City 
of London is the Common Council, and elsewhere in the Administrative County 
of liondon the local authorities are the London County Council and the Metro- 
politan Borough Councils as indicated hereafter,^ 

Part 11 — Repair, maintenance, etc,, of houses 

The letting of a house in the Administrative County of London at a rent not 
exceeding £40 a year (elsewhere £26) places on the landlord, an obligation to 
keep the house in all respects fit for habitation (section 2), and it is the duty of 
the local authority to cause an inspection of its district to be made from time 
to time with a view to ascertaining whether any house is unfit (section 5). 

The local authority is empowered to make by-laws with respect to working- 
class houses for the purpose of securing compliance with sanitary and other 
specified conditions (section 6), In the Administrative County of London (other 
than the City of London) the London County Council is the authority for making 
such by-laws, which are administered by the Metropolitan Borough Councils 
(with the exception of by-laws for securing stability, and the prevention of and 
safety from fire, which are administered by the County Council) 

In dealing with individual unfit houses, the local authority is required to 
classify them as being repairable at a reasonable cost, or as not being so repair- 
able.. In the former case (sections 9 and 10) the person having control of the 
house is to be required to repair it to render it fit for habitation or the local 
authority may do so in his default and recover the cost from him. In the latter 
case (section 11) the local authority is empowered to order the demolition of 
the house, but may accept an undertaking from the owner either that the house 
shall cease to be used for human habitation or that he will, within a specified 
time, carry out such works as will, in the opinion of the local authority, render 
it fit. In default of the owner the local authority may itself demolish the house. 

A local authority may make a closing order in relation to part of a house or in 
relation to any underground room wffiich is deemed to be unfit for habitation 
(section 12). 

In the above matters, the owner of the house has a right of appeal to the county 
court against any notice or order, etc., of the local authority (section 15). 

The demolition of a building to which a demolition order or a clearance order 
(under Part III of the Act) applies must be deferred if the local authority notifies 
the owner that it intends to cleanse the building from vermin before it is 
demolished (sections 17 and 26). 

The erection of back-to-back houses is prohibited, but tenements in a building 
may be placed back-to-back if effective ventilation to all the habitable rooms is 
secured to the satisfaction of the medical officer of health (section 22). 

In the Administrative County of London (other than the City of London) the 
Metropolitan Borough Councils are the authorities for administering the provisions 
of the Act relating to individual unfit houses. 


251 ) 



252 


HOUSING 


Part III — Clearance and redevelopment 

(a) Clearance areas 

A local authority is empowered to deal with an unhealthy area (or “ slum ”) 
by requiring the owners to demolish the unfit houses or by itself acquiring and 
demolishing them. In the first instance, the local authority is required to declare 
the area to be a clearance area, that is to say, an area in which all the houses 
are unfit for human habitation or dangerous or injurious to health, and in which 
the conditions can most satisfactorily be dealt with by the demolition of all the 
buildings (section 25). 

If the local authority decides to purchase the lands in a clearance area, ad- 
joining lands may be added to secure a suitable site for redevelopment (section 
27). Purchase may be effected by agreement or, failing agreement, the properties 
may be acquired compulsorily by means of a compulsory purchase order (section 
29). 

Clearance orders and compulsory purchase orders require confirmation by the 
Minister of Health. If there are objections to an order, a public local inquir\^ 
is required to be held before confirmation. An order when confirmed does not 
become operative until six weeks have elapsed, during which period any person 
aggrieved may appeal to the High Court against its validity. 

Where houses have been demolished under a clearance order, the local authority 
may impose such conditions as it thinks fit in regard to the subsequent user or 
redevelopment of the cleared site (section 26). If at any time after the expiration 
of 18 months from the date on which the order became operative the site has not 
been or is not in process of being developed by the owner, the local authority 
may acquire the land compulsorily (section 82). 

Land in or adjoining a clearance area purchased by a local authority may be 
utilised for the erection of working-class dwellings or for any other ])urpose for 
which the local authority is authorised to acquire land, or may be sold or leased 
or exchanged for other land (section 80). 

(b) Redevelopment areas 

Local authorities of towns are empowered to deal with extensive areas which 
it is expedient to redevelop as a whole. It is the duty of a local authority to 
declare as a redevelopment area any area in its district with regard to which it 
is satisfied as a result of an inspection that the following conditions exist : — 
(a) that the area contains 50 or more working class houses ; (6) that at least 
one-third of the w'orking-class houses in the area are overcrowded, or unfit for 
human habitation and not capable at reasonable expense of being rendered so 
fit, or so arranged as to be congested ; (c) that the industrial and social conditions 
of the local authority’s district are such that the area should be used to a sub- 
stantial extent for rehousing ; and (d) that it is expedient in connection with the 
provision of housing accommodation that the area should be redeveloped as a ’ 
whole (section 34). 

Such an area may include properties which the authority cannot, or does not 
propose to, interfere with in any way, c.g., railway proj^erty , churches or properties 
belonging to private owners the user of which it is not proposed to change. 

When the resolution declaring an area to be a redevelopment area has been 
passed, a copy of the resolution and a map of the area have to be sent to the 
Minister of Health, a notice as to passing of the resolution has to be published and 
the map is to be open to public inspection. Subsequently (within six months 
unless the Minister extends the period), a redevelopment plan has to be submitted 
to the Minister for approval (section 35). This plan has to show the manner in 
which it is intended that the area as defined on the map should be laid out and the 
land therein used, whether for existing purposes or for purposes requiring the 
carrying out of redevelopment thereon, and in particular the land intended to 
be used for the provision of dwellings for the working classes, for streets and for 
open spaces. Before a redevelopment plan can be approved by the Minister 
notices have to be published and the plan made open to inspection, and, if any 
obj^tions are made, a public local inquiry must be held. 

Once the plan has been approved by the Minister, it rests with the local author- 
ity to secure that the redevelopment shown on the plan is carried out. The 
work of constructing new streets and providing new housing accommodation 
and open spaces will normally be carried out by the local authority, but the 



APPENDIX 


253 


remaining development (e,g,, industrial or commercial) will, in the normal course, 
fall to be carried out by private enterprise. The local authority may make 
arrangements whereby the existing owners of land in the redevelopment area, 
or other persons, undertake to carry out the industrial or commercial redevelop- 
ment, or in a case where no change of user is contemplated, to continue the existing 
use of the land in accordance with the plan. In so far as such arrangements have 
not' been made, it is the duty of the local authority to purchase the land in the 
area by agreement, or to submit compulsory purchase orders for the acquisition 
of the property. Land in a redevelopment area purchased by a local authority 
may be sold, leased or exchanged for other land, subject, as regards land in the 
redevelopment area, to conditions for securing that it shall be redeveloped 
or used in accordance with the redevelopment plan (section 36). 

(c) General provisiona as to clearance and redevelopment areas 

No compensation is payable to an owner who is required to demolish a house 
under a clearance order (or a demolition order under Part II of the Act), but 
the Minister of Health has power to direct the local authority to make a limited 
payment to the person responsible for maintaining a house covered by a clearance 
or compulsory purchase order if, notwithstanding inherent defects, the house 
has been well maintained (section 42). Where a^local authority buys houses 
unfit for habitation under a compulsory purchase order, the compensation payable 
is the value of the site cleared of buildings. The price paid for other property 
in or adjoining a clearance area or other property in a redevelopment area is 
market value, subject, however, to deductions if the rental value of the premises 
is enhanced by reason of their being used for illegal purposes, or being over- 
crowded, or if the i)remises are in a defective state of sanitation or are not in 
reasonably good repair (section 40), The local authority may make allowances 
to persons displaced or to retail traders who suiTcr personal hardship on account 
of clearance operations (sections 18 and 44). ' 

llefore taking any action in relation to a clearance or redevelopment area which 
necessitates the displacement of persons of the w^orking classes, the local authority 
is required to carry out such rehousing operations as the Minister of He^^Ith may 
consider to be necessary (section 45). 

Public rights of way may be extinguished by an order of the local authority, 
subject to the approval of the Minister of Health. Due notice has to be given 
and, if objection is made to the order, a public local inquiry must be held (section 
46). 

Sections 50 to 52 provide for the exclusion from future operations under 
Part II or Part HI of the Act land which is redeveloped or houses which are 

f reebnditioned by the owners to the satisfaction of the local authority. In the 
case of reconditioning, the exemption operates only for a limited period of from 
five to ten years, as certified by the local authority. 

j In the Administrative (kmnty of London (other than the City of London) the 
London County Council and the Metropolitan Borough Councils are local author- 
ities for the purposes of the provisions of the Act relating to clearance areas, 
but the County Council may elect itself to deal with any particular area. The 
County Council is the authority for redevelopment areas, but any such area may, 
with the assent of the County Council, be dealt with by the Metropolitan Borough 
Council concerned. 

A local authority (in the City of London, the Common Council ; and elsewhere 
in the Administrative C'ounty of London, a Metropolitan Borough Council) 
may, subject to compensation to the owner, order the demolition of an 
obstructive building, that is a building which by reason only of its contact 
with, or proximity to, other buildings is dangerous or injurious to health 
(section 54). 


Part IV — Abatement of overcrowding 

Under the Act, overcrowding is an offence punishable by fine against the 
occupier who causes it and the landlord who permits. The standard of accom- 
modation for determining overcrowding consists of two parts (section 59). The 




254 


HOUSING 


first aims at securing the proper separation of the sexes ; the second prescribes 
the maximum number of persons who may be permitted to sleep in a dwelling- 
house, the permitted number being fixed in relation to the number and sizes 
of rooms in the house (section 58). Details are given on pages 5, 7 and 8. 

The overcrowding provisions of the Act come into force on dates fixed by the 
Minister of Health appointed days ”) and the Minister may fix different dates 
for different purposes and for different localities (section 68). 

The Act contains safeguards to protect an occupier or a landlord against a 
charge of having caused or permitted overcrowding in certain circumstances over 
which he has no control (section 59). Generally speaking, an offence will not 
have been committed if overcrowding existing on the appointed day is not 
increased. The occupier of an overcrowded house will, however, be guilty 
of an offence if he fails to accept an offer of suitable alternative accommodation 
or fails to take reasonable steps to secure the removal of a lodger or other person 
not being a member of his own family. Where fresh overcrowding does occur, 
the landlord or his agent must notify the local authority within seven days 
after the fact becomes known to him (section 64). 

To meet exceptional conditions in any district, the Minister of Health may, 
by order operating for a term not exceeding three years, modify the overcrowding 
standard in relation to particular types of houses (section 60). In special cir- 
cumstances a local authority may by licence authorise the occupation of a house 
for a limited period by a number of persons in excess of the permitted number 
as may be specified in the licence (section 61). 

Every landlord is required to insert in the rent book or other similar document 
a summary of the provisions of the Act relating to overcrowding and a statement 
of the maximum number of persons permitted to sleep in the house (section 62). 

Each local authority is required to make an inspection of its district for the 
purpose of ascertaining what dwelling houses are overcrowded (section 57) ; 
and it is the duty of each local authority to submit to the Minister of Health 
proposals for the provision of new dwellings for abating the overcrowding 
disclosed by the survey. 

As regards the Administrative County of London (other than the City of 
London), the duties of making the survey, and of enforcing the overcrowding 
provisions of the Act, devolve on the Metropolitan Borough Councils, and the 
duty of providing the additional accommodation required is placed on the 
London County Council, although the Metropolitan Borough Councils may 
themselves submit proposals to the County Council for the provision of accommo- 
dation for the purpose (section 69). 

The London County Council is required to bear a proportion of the cost of 
the survey and of the administration of the overcrowding provisions of the Act 
in London (section 70). 


Part V — Provision of housing accoimnodation 

This part of the Act deals with the powers and duties of local authorities 
to provide housing accommodation for the working classes. Every local author- 
ity is required periodically to review the housing conditions in its area and to 
submit proposals to the Minister of Health for the provision of new dwellings 
(section 71). A local authority may acquire land and build .houses, may acquire 
existing houses suitable for the purpose or may acquire and convert any building 
into dwellings for the working classes (sections 72 and 73). These powers may 
be exercised outside the district of the local authority. 

Land for housing may be acquired by agreement or compulsorily, the pro- 
ceeding, in regard to compulsory purchase, being similar to those prescribed 
under Part III of the Act (section 74). The compensation payable is based on 
market value. The local authority may itself carry out housing operations or 
may, with the consent of the Minister of Health, sell or lease land for the 
purpose (section 79). With the like consent, land acquired for housing may 
be sold or exchanged for other more suitable land, and houses provided by a 
local authority may be sold on condition that they are maintained for working- 
class occupation. Recreation grounds, shops and other buildings may, with 
the consent of the Minister, be provided and maintained by the local authority 
oh housing land (section 80). 


APPENDIX 


255 


The general management of houses provided by a local authority is vested in 
that authority, which is empowered to make reasonable charges for tenancy 
and occupation (section 83). In fixing rents, the local authority is required to 
take into consideration the rents ordinarily payable by persons of the working- 
classes in the locality, but may grant to any tenant such rebates from rent as 
it may think fit. In the selection of tenants a reasonable preference has to be 
given to persons who are occupying insanitary or overcrowded houses, who have 
large families or who are living under unsatisfactory conditions (section 85). 

A local authority is empowered, if it thinks it expedient, to set up a Housing 
Management Commission to whom it may transfer its functions in relation to the 
management, regulation, control, repair, etc., of all or any of its housing estates. 
A scheme for any such transfer is subject to the approval of the Minister of Health 
(section 87). 

A local authority may advance money on loan for the provision of houses or 
the improvement of housing accommodation or may guarantee repayment of 
advances, with interest, to building societies (sections 90 and 91). Any loss that 
may be sustained by the local authority under such guarantee is shared by the 
State (section 110). The Public Works Loans Commissioners may lend money 
for similar purposes to companies, housing associations, etc, (section 92). A 
local authority may promote the formation of .a housing association, and may 
assist such an association by grants or loans (section 93). A local authority may 
also arrange for the provision or adaptation by a housing association of housing 
accommodation ; and any State grant payable in respect of such operations is 
paid to the association through the local authority, which may supplement such 
grant (section 94). 

The Minister of Health may assist financially a Central Housing Association 
formed to assist and advise housing associations (section 9(>). 

As respects the Administrative County of London (other than the City of 
London), the London County Council is the local authority for the provision of 
houses outside the County and for the purpose of advancing money on loan for 
the provision of housing accommodation. A Metropolitan Borough Council is 
the authority for the provision of additional houses in the metropolitan borough ; 
but, without prejudice to the powers of the Metropolitan Borough Councils, the 
London County Council may in any part of the County provide accommodation 
for rehousing purposes in connection with displacements occasioned by any 
action taken under the Act or for the abatement of overcrowding or, with the 
approval of the Minister of Health, for any other purpose (section 103). 

Part VI — Financial provisions 

Provision is made for the payment of contributions by the State towards 
the expenses of operations carried out by a local authority under the Act, and 
for contributions by the local authority out of the rates, as follows : — 

(a) Dealing with clearance areas, demolition of insanitary houses, 
closing of parts of houses, and the provision of rehousing accommodation 
in connection therewith. Also the provision of rehousing accommodation 
for persons displaced from unfit houses in a redevelopment area. — State 
contribution — 5s, annually for 40 years in respect of each person displaced 
and rehoused. Contribution increased to £3 10s. a person where rehousing 
accommodation is provided in buildings of more than three storeys, either 
in clearance areas or on sites the cost or value of which exceeds £3,000 an 
acre (section 105). Rate contribution — £3 15s. a dwelling a year for 40 years 
(section 114). 

(b) Provision of new accommodation to abate overcrowding or to 
rehouse persons (other than those in respect of whom subsidy under the 
foregoing paragraph (a) is payable) displaced from redevelopment areas. — 
State contribution — ^Annually for 40 years in respect of each dwelling in 
blocks of flats erected on sites, the cost of which, as developed, exceeds 
£1,500 an acre, a contribution related to the cost per acre of the site and 
varying in accordance with a graduated scale from £6 upwards (section 106). 
As regards accommodation provided otherwise than in blocks of^flats and 



256 


HOUSING 


also as regards any dwellings erected on sites costing £1,500 an acre or less, 
a State contribution not exceeding £5 a dwelling a year for 20 years may 
be made, if the Minister of Health considers that the circumstances justify 
it (section 107). Rate contribution — An annual amount equal to one-half 
of the State contribution (section 114). 

The rate contribution under paragraph («) or (b) may be spread over a 
period of 60 years. 

The above-mentioned State contributions are subject to review after 1st 
October, 1967, and in each succeeding third year, and any revision operates in 
regard to new houses completed after a specified date subsequent to the date of 
revision (section 109). 

Every local authority is required to keep a Housing Revenue Account (section 
128) to which is credited the income from the dwellings and the State and rate 
contributions. The account is debited with the loan charges and other outgoings, 
the cost of supervision and luanageinent and contributions (not less than 15 per 
cent, of the annual net rent) to a Housing Repairs Account (section 161). Any 
deficiency on the Housing Revenue Account must be met out of the rates in the 
financial year in which it arises. Any surplus may be used to re-imburse the 
rates for deficiencies arising in the preceding four years or may be either trans- 
ferred to the Housing Repairs Account or carried forward to the next financial 
year. Any surplus not so disposed of must be divided between the local authority 
and the State in proportion to the relative total rate and State contributions 
during the previous five years (section 160). 

Part VII — General 

This Part of the Act deals chiefly with matters of procedure. The following 
is a brief reference to the principal items of general interest. 

The Minister of Health is required to set up a Central Housing Advisory 
Committee for the purpose of considering the operation of the Housing Acts 
and advising him on matters of general concern arising under them (section 165). 

The Act specifies a standard of size or accommodation to be adopted by local 
authorities in the provision of houses, but the Minister of Health may approve 
a different standard necessitated by special circumstances (section 166). 

A local authority displacing persons of the working classes under statutory 
powers, other than under the Housing Act, 1936, is required to carry out such 
rehousing operations as the Minister of Health may consider necessarv (section 
137 ^ 

Provision is made, subject to the approval of the Minister of Health, for the 
relaxation of building by-laws, and by-laws relating to new streets, for the purpose 
of facilitating housing operations under the Act (sections 139 to 141). 

An order under the Act, alienating any part of a common, open space or 
allotment requires confirmation by Parliament, except where it provides for 
the giving in exchange of other suitable land of not less extent. The Minister 
of Health is required, if necessary, to hold a local inquiry on the subject 
(section 143). 

Power is given to a local authority, after giving due notice,, to take possession of 
land which it has agreed to purchase or which it is authorised to acquire com- 
pulsorily, pending the settlement of the question of the price to be paid for the 
land (section 145). 

Local authorities are given the power of entry into any house or other building 
for survey and examination for any of the purposes of the Act (section 157). 

Power is given to the courts for various purposes — ^to determine a lease of 
premises demolished ; to authorise an owner to execute works on default of 
another owner of the property ; to authorise the execution, by any person 
entitled to any interest in property, of works on unfit premises or for improve- 
ment ; and to authorise the conversion of a house into several tenements 
notwithstanding restrictive covenants to the contrary (sections 160 to 163). 

On default of a local authority, the Minister of Health may make an order 
directing the local authority to exercise its powers under the Act. He may 



APPENDIX 


257 


direct a county council to remedy the default of the council of a non-county 
borough or of an urban district (a county council is empowered under the Act 
to take action in default of a rural district council), and the Minister may, in 
the last resource, himself exercise the powers of a local authority under the Act 
(sections 171 to 173). 

The London County Council may at any time enter into an agreement with the 
Common Council of the City of London or a Metropolitan Borough Council 
with respect to any action to be taken for dealing with clearance and redevelop- 
ment areas and the provision of housing accommodation, and the making of 
contributions by one authority to the other (section 181). Similarly, the London 
County Council and the Common Council of the City of London may enter 
into agreements with local authorities concerned with respect to the provision 
of housing accommodation outside the County of London (section 182). 

Part VIII — Supplemental 

This part of the Act deals with repeals, interpretation, etc., and contains a 
saving clause providing that anything done under the repealed enactments 
shall have effect as if done under the corresponding provisions of the 1936 Act, 
and therefore preserves in force orders, bylaws, regulations, etc., made under the 
earlier Acts and secures continuity of action. 



258 


HOUSING 


APPENDIX II 

Details of Accommodation Provided by the Council and its Predecessors 
UP TO 31st December, 1930 



Pre-War 

Area in 

Number of 
dwellings 

Nufnber of 


acres 

provided 

rooms 

(i) Cottage estates ... 

... 119-81 

3,444 

12,473 

(ii) Block dwellings . . . 

53-79 

6,536 

16,251 

(iii) Lodging houses .. . 

... — 

— 

l,875t 

Total 

... 173-60 

9,980 

30,599 


t Cubicles. 


Post-War 


Name of estate, etc. 


liorougti or district 


I Accommodation 
I provided up to 31bt 
Approxi- , December, 193(5 
mate urea 

i ti acres 

Dwellingis 1 llooms | 


Number of 
dwellings 
under 
contract 
and not 
completed 
at 3Ist 


December, 

1930 


Total 
estimated 
ruimbcr of 
dwellings 
I to be 
I IiroTitlf-vl 
wlicti de- 
‘ velopnufiit 
is 

completed 


(i) Coitnie estates - 

Becontree 

Ilford, Barking and Dag- 
enham. 

2,770 0 

25,574 

95,547 

161 

25,859 

Bellingharu 

Lewisham 

200 0 

2,127 

8,306 

— 

2,127 

Bellingham Exten- 

Lewisham 

.'>2 0 

— 

— 

546 

546 

Sion 

Castelnaii 

Barnes 

51 *5 

644 

2,535 

— 

644 

Chigwell 

Chigwell, Ilford and 
Dagenham. 

434-0 

— 

— 

— 

(a) 

Chingford 

Chingford 

217-0 

— 

— 

— 

1,540 

Downham 

Lewisham and Bromley 

522 0 

0,058 

22,336 

— 

6,058 

Downham (White- 

Lewisham and Bromley 

78-0 

— 

— 

1,038 

1,088 

foot Lane). 

Hanwell 

Ealing 

140-0 

291 ; 

1,031 

1,296 

1,587 

Headstone Lane ... 

: Harrow 

142-0 

— 

— 

— 

(a) 

KenmorePark ... 

Harrow 

58-0 

76 

280 

578 

654 

Mottingham 

Bromley, Chislehurstand 
Sidcup and Lewisham. 

202-0 

953 

3,483 

1,384 

2,387 

Norbury 

(-roydon 

11-0 

218 1 

854 

— 

218 

Old Oak 

Hammersmith and Acton 

32-0 

736 j 

2,872 

— 

736 

Roehampton 

Wandsworth 

147-0 

1,212 

4,751 

— 

1,212 

St. Helier 

Merton and Morden, Car- 
shalton, Sutton and 
Cheam. 

825-0 

9,068 

38,066 


9,068 


Thornhill 

Greenwich 

20-5 

217 

. 746 

103 

380 

Watling 

Hendon 

; 386-0 

4,084 

1 15,246 

; — 

4,034 

White Hart Lane... 

Tottenham and Wood 

98-0 

1,266 

1 4*783 



' 1,266 


Green. 




Wormholt (see also 

! Hammersmith 

68-0 

783 

: 3,046 



! 783 

block dwellings). 


j 

! 

i 



Total Cotta ge Property 

1 6.454-0 

58,257 

198,881 

5,166 

60,087 

(ii) Block 

estates-- 

! ! 

1 


i 

i 



Ada Place 

! Bethnal Green and | 

1-50 

— 

j 

53 

87 

Shoreditch. 




' 


Adiey Street 

Deptford I 

3-65 

— 

— 


180 


(a) Figures not yet available. 


APPENDIX 


259 





Accommodation 

Number of 
dwellings 

Total 
estimated 
number of 


j 


provided up to Slst 

under 



Approzi* 

December, 1936 

contract 

dwellings 

Name of estate, etc. 

' Borough or district 

nmte area 



and not 

to be _ 


in acres 



completed 

provided 




Dwellings 

Booms 

at Slst 
December, 
1936 

velopment 

is 






completed 

(ii) Block 
dwelling estates — 

continued. 






Amias Place 

Finsbury 

•56 

— 

— 

29 

29 

Andover Estate . . . 

Islington 

2*35 

170 

470 

— 

170 

Baker's Row and 

Finsbury and Holborn ... 

2-65 

— 

— 

— 

126 

Warner Street. 






Banbury Road .... 

Hackney 

1-80 

50 

164 

46 

96 

Barndeld Road . . . 

Woolwich 

10*85 

— 

— 

— 

521 

Barnsbury Estate 

Islington 

4*50 

19 

63 

144 

266 

Betts Street 

Stepney 

•75 

— 

— 

40 

40 

Birchfleld House . . . 

Poplar 

•57 

40 

95 

— 

40 

Bostoek Street ... 

Islington 

1*75 

— 

— 

— 

98 

Bow Bridge Estate 

Poplar 

7-81 

183 

518 

— 

447 

Broadway... 

Hackney ... 

4' so 

— 

— 

— 

256 

Browning Estate . . . 

Southwark 

eoo 

168 

533 

92 

393 

Broxholme House 

Fulham 

•92 

44 

158 

— 

! 44 

Bush Green House 

Hammersmith 

— 

11 

23 



11 

Calverley House . . . 

Islington... 

— 

8 

24 

— 

8 

Chieksand Street... 

Stepney 

2-30 

— 

— 

— 

133 

China Walk Estate 

Lambeth 

5-85 

283 

936 



283 

Church Street 

Stoke Newington 

1-44 

— 

— 

61 

61 

Clapham Park 

Wandsworth 

14-83 

665 

2,125 

94 

759 

Estate. 






Collingwood Estate 

Bethnal Green 

510 

280 

864 

— 

280 

Col wyn Street 

Lambeth 

2-45 

— 

— 

— 

106 

Comber Estate . . . 

Camberwell 

5-44 

325 

990 

— 

325 

Coventry Cross 

Poplar 

1 3*61 j 

190 

580 

10 

247 

Estate. 




i 


Cowley Estate ... i 

Lambeth... 

8 00 

607 

1,881 

— 

607 

Crossficld Estate ... 

Deptford 

! 2-50 

162 

495 

i — 

162 

Darling Row 

Bethnal Green ... 

3-60 

— 

— 

i 

191 

Deptford Park | 

Deptford 

1-80 

102 

294 

j — 

102 

Estate. 1 




! 


Devas Street ... | 

Poplar 

8-25 

— ! 

— 

— 

! 480 

Dickens Estate ... | 

Bermondsey 

600 

303 

901 

1 

i 303 

Dinmont Estate ... i 

Bethnal Green and Shore- 

4-24 

189 

588 

i 60 

1 249 

! 

ditch. 






Dock Cottages ... 1 

Poplar 

1-97 

— 

— 

— 

109 

Dorset Road ... i 

Lambeth 

769 

— 

— 

— 

386 

Downs Estate ... I 

Hackney 

3-46 

204 

642 

— 

204 

Drysdale Estate ... 

Shoreditch 

1-35 

105 

335 

— 

105 

Duncan Square ... 

Hackney 

1-50 

71 

220 

30 

101 

East Dulwich Estate 

Camberwell 

1600 

822 

2,583 

74 

896 

East Hill Estate ... 

Wandsworth 

8-25 

601 

1,863 

— 

601 

Eastney Street ... 

Greenwich 

110 

— 

— 

— 

75 

Ellen Street 

Stepney 

•90 

68 

214 

— 

68 

Evans Cottages ... 

Lambeth 

•50 

— 

— 

— 

24 

Frankham Street... 

Deptford 

2-17 

— 

— 

— 

104 

Friary Estate ... i 

Camberwell 

8-28 

169 

528 

97 

415 

Garden Street 

Camberwell 

200 

— 

— 

— 

99 

Garford Street . . . 

Poplar 

1-25 

— 

— 

22 

67 

Gascoyne Road . . . 

Hackney 

4-50 

— 

— 

— 

287 

Gaselee Street 

Poplar 

•75 

— 

— 

39 

39 

Glebe Estate 

Camberwell 

5-50 

824 

1,182 

— 

824 

Glebe Place 

Stoke Newington 

1-40 

— 

— 

74 

74 

Haddo Street 

Greenwich 

3-50 





150 

150 

Haggerston Estate 
Hanbury Street ... 

Shoreditch 

5-16 

70 

215 

182 

884 

Stepney 

St. Marylebone 

•50 

— 

— 

24 

24 

Harrow Street 

2-80 

— 

■— 

— 

106 


s 


260 


HOUSING 


Name of estate, etc. 

Borough or district 

Approxi- 
area 
in acres 

Accommodation 
provided up to 31st 
December, 1936 

Dwellings | Booms 

i 

(ii) Block 
dwelling estates — 

continued. 




Herring Street . . . 
High Hill I'i'erry ... 

Camberwell 

•50 



— 

Hackney 

4*(I0 

— 

— 

Hilldrop Road . . . 

Islington 

14-30 

— 

— 

Holland Estate ... 

Stepney 

3-24 

231 

710 

Hollybush Gardens 

Bethnal Green 

1-40 

90 

270 

Estate. 





Honor Oak Estate 

Deptford and Lewisham 

30-00 

1,095 

3,373 

Hornsey Rise Estate 

Islington 

3-50 

188 

.584 

Hughes Fields Estate 

Deptford and Greenwich 

7-38 

414 

1,290 

Hurlock Street ... 

Islington 

3-12 



— 

Kennings Estate . . . 

Lambeth... 

2-75 

169 

479 

Kcnnington Park 

Lambeth 

18-20 

687 

2,144 

Estate. 




Kilburn Vale 

Hampstead 

2-2.5 

— 

— 

Kingshold Estate. . . 

Hackney 

2-63 

140 

487 

King's Mead Estate 

Hackney 

20*50 


— 

Lant Street 

Southwark 

1-50 





Lilestone Estate ... 

St. Marylebonc 

6-00 

233 

702 

Lilford Road 

Lambeth 

2-83 





XiOraine Estate ... 

Islington 

C-80 

321 

1,044 

Loughborough 

Lambeth 

5-30 

220 

732 

Estate. 





Macaulay Square... 

Wandsworth 

1-80 

115 

360 

Meridian Estate ... 

Greenwich 

3-50 ! 

263 

821 

Millwall Estate ... 

Poplar 

; 2-7.5 1 





Morning Lane 

Hackney 

4-00 





Newburii Street ... 

Lambeth 

7-00 





North Avenue 

Islington 

1-08 





Northampton Street | 

Islington 

1-25 

80 

240 

Estate. 1 




Northwold Estate 1 

Hackney 

7-00 

314 

955 

Oaklands Estate . . . 

Wandsworth 

! 3-12 

185 

582 

Oban House 

Poplar 

ICO 

87 

274 

Oliver Goldsmith 

Camberwell 

2-44 

121 

383 

Estate. 





Orb Street 

Southw'ark 

3-25 





Ossulston Estate . . . 

St. Pancras 

9-45 

871 

1,173 

Pearson’s Place ... 

Lambeth... 

•50 



Peckham Rye 

Camberwell 

4-32 





Ped ley Street 

Bethnal Green 

1-64 





Pembury Road ... i 

Hackney 

1 20-00 





Pennington Street 

Stepney 

1 4-65 

— 

1 ' — 

Perring Estate ... 

Poplar 

2-64 

56 

170 

Pott Street 

Bethnal Green 

2-10 





Poynders Road . . . 

Wandsworth 

6-50 





Provost Estate . . . 

Shoreditch 

4-56 

180 

881 

Quaker Street 

Stepney 

•52 



Hanwell Close 

Poplar* 

1*44 

103 

384 

Redcross Street . . . 

Southwark 

1-70 

- ■ 


Richmond Street... 

St. Marylebone 

•95 





Rill Street 

Camberwell 

1’28 


— 

Ring Cross 

Islington 

8-50 

225 

658 

Rockingham Estate 

Southw^ark 

17*50 

1<6 

450 

St. Katharine’s 
Estate. 

Stepney 

8*25 

1 

1 


Savrina Street ... 

Battersea 

4*00 

— 

— 


Number of 
dwellings 
under 
contract 
and not 
completed 
at Slat 
December, 
1936 

1’otal 
estimated 
number of 
dwellings 
to be 
provided 
when de- 
velopment 
is 

provided 


30 

— 

191 

— 

709 

3 

234 

— 

90 

9 

1,104 

— 

188 

— 

414 

— 

181 

— 

109 

103 

1,114 



114 

— 

140 

103 

1,000 

— 

80 

72 

305 

— 

145 

— 

321 

— 

220 



115 

! 

263 

! 106 

151 

1 

i 203 

— 

1 389 

i — 

; 50 

— 

! 80 

147 

461 

— 

185 

— 

87 

— 

121 



164 

108 

514 

1 — 

24 

— 

207 

— 

87 

118 

946 

— 

216 

— 

165 

93 

110 

— 

277 

183 

263 

29 

29 

— 

103 

— 

87 

— 

50 

— 

77 

— 

225 

248 

925 

168 

168 

— 

229 


appendix 


261 


Name of estate, < tc. 


(ii) Block 
dwelling estates— 
Shad well Place ... 
Shipwright hlstate 
Shore Estate 
Sophia Street 
Sparta Street 
Speedwell Estate... 
Stamford Hill 
Estate. 

Stamford Hill 
(West). 

Stoekw^ell Gardens 
Estate. 

Streatham Hill 
Estate. 

Sumner Road 
Tabard Garden 
Estate (iiieludihg 
Law Street and 
Minto Street). 
Tansw'ell Street ... 
Tinworth Street ... 
Tufnell Park Road 

Tulse Hill 

Vauxhall Gardens 
PJstatc. 

Wandsworth Road 
Wapping Estate ... 
Warburton Square 
Wedmore Plstate . . . 
Wellington Estate 
West Ferry Estate 
Whiston House . . . 
White City 
Whitgift Street . . . 
Whitmore Plstate. , . 
Wood berry Down 
Site. 

Wormholt (see also 
cottage estates). 


iJorough or district 


Approxi- j 
mate area ! 
in acres I 


Accommodation 
provided up to .31st 
December, 1936 


S’umber of 


\continued. 

I Stepney 

! Stepney 

I Hackney 

Poplar 

i Greenwich and Lewisham 

i Deptford 

i Hackney... 

i Hackney 

! Lambeth 

Wandsworth 

Camberwell 

Bermondsey and South- 
wark 


I Lambeth, 
j Lambeth. 
I Islington. 
; Lambeth. 
: Lambeth. 


Wandsworth 
Stepney ... 
Hackney ... 
Islington... 
Bethnal Green . 
Poplar ... 
Shoreditch 
Hammersmith . 
Lambeth... 
Shoreditch 
Stoke New ington 

Hammersmith . . 


under 
contract 
and not 
completed 
at 3Lst 
I December, 
i 1930 


dwellings 
to be 
provided 
whin dc- 
veloiuneiit 


3 -20 



— 

— 

180 

ICO 

48 

155 

5 

83 

2-88 

184 

508 

— 

184 

3-78 

— 

— 

45 

220 

4-25 



— 

213 

212 

180 

560 

— 

180 

11-40 

353 

1,203 

— 

516 

310 

— 



— 

156 

6*00 

168 

547 

135 

308 

8-60 

252 

843 

— 

252 

9-75 




217 

520 

21-50 

645 

1,976 

121 

917 

3-50 



48 

232 

2-66 



. — 

— 

170 

5-30 

— 

: — 

— 

1 232 

33-25 

— 

1 — 

— 

965 

7-17 

197 

633 

238 

! 435 

25-50 

: _ 

i 

109 

, 1,032 

8-55 

355 

j 1,076 

— 

: 355 

1-25 




. — 

73 

-75 

28 

85 

— 

28 

5-75 





152 

i 322 

3-23 

202 

581 

— 

202 

•22 

12 

45 

— 

12 

50 CO 



— 

— 

2,280 

•65 



— 

24 

24 

8-66 

494 

1,370 

— 

538 

64 00 

— 

— 

1 

(a) 

See 

ottage.s 

112 i 

328 

— 

112 

r67-02 

15,447 1 

47,035 

3,874 

36,110 


(a) Figures not yet available. 


262 


HOUSING 


SUMMARY 



Total 

acreage 

(approxi- 

mate) 

Accommodation 
provided before the 
War 

1 

1 Accommodation 

1 provided since the 
War 

Total 

accommodation 
provided to 

31st December, 1936 

Dwellings 
under 
contract 
at Slst 
December, 

Total 
estimated 
number of 
dwellings 
to be 
provided 
when de- 


1 

Dwellings 

1 

llooms 

i 

Dwellings 

llooms 

Dwellings 

1 llooms 


is 

completed 

Cottage 

0,573 >81 

3,444 ' 

12,473 

; 1 

153,257 198,881 i 

50,701 

211,354 

5,106 

00,087 

Property. 
Block dwellings 

820-81 

1 

0,530 1 

! 

10,251 

: ! 

1 15,447 I 

47,985 1 

21,983 

04,186 

3,874 

30,110 

Lodging houses 

— 


l,875t 

__ 1 — 

— 

l,875t 

— 

— 

Total ... 

7,394-02 

9,980 

30,599 

08,704 j 240,810 

78,084 

277,415 

9,040 

90,197 


t CubicloB. 





APPENDIX 


268 


APPENDIX III 

Particulars of Clearance Schemes undertaken 
London County Council and its Predecessors 

OR BEING undertaken BY THE 
UP TO 81ST December, 1936 

Clearance Scliemes and dates of declaration 

Area in 
acres 

1 Number of persons of the 
! working ftlnaaRR 

i Dl^Iaced 1 Provided for 



1 or to be 

1 displaced 

up to 

1 30th ^pt. *36 

Pre-War 

Schemes undertaken and completed by the Metropolitan 
Board of Works 

41-73 

22,872 

27,730 (a) 

Schemes undertaken by the Metropolitan Board of Works 



and completed by the London County Council 

15-51 

6,132 {c 

2,949 (5) 

Schemes undertaken and completed by the London County 


Council 

39-98 

16,434 (c 

15,644(6) 

Total pre-war 

97-22 

45,438 

46,323 (6) 

Post-War 

Areas dealt with by the L . C . C . under Housing Acts prior to the 
1930 Act - 




Tabard Street, etc. (Southwark and Bermondsey), 1910 

18-47 

4,552 (c) 

3,7.52 

Brady Street (Bethnal Green), 1922 

Ware Street (Shoreditch), 1922 

7-18 

1,865 

1,994 (6) 

8-55 

2,648 

2,623 

Bell Lane (Stepney), 1923 

5-18 

1,428 

1,473 

Hickman’s Folly (Bermondsey), 1923 

6-00 

1,660 

1,738 

Baker’s Aliev, etc. (Poplar), 1924 

2-72 

740 

740 

Prusoin Street (Stepney), 1924 

8-65 

2,601 

2,437 

George’s Road and Brand Street (Islington), 1925 ... 

4*85 

1,320 

1,320 

Watergate Street (Deptford and Greenwich), 1920 ... 

7-38 

1,927 

1,978 

Ossulston Street (St. Pancras), 1926 

7-85 

2,557 

1,955 

Hatfield Street, (’hina Walk and Wyndham Road, etc. 



(Southwark, Lambeth and Camberwell), 1927 ... 

11-16 

3,350 

3,360 

Blue Anchor Lane and Basing Place (Camberwell), 1927 

8-84 

756 

638 

Carlisle Street (St. Marylcbone), 1928 

7-40 

2,632 

2,282 

Total po.st-war under Housing Acts prior to 




1930 Act 

98-73 

28,036 

26,285 (6) 

Areas dealt with by the L.C.C. under 1930 declared up to j 

31s/ December^ 1936 — 

1 



Oliver Court (Poplar), 1930 

•38 

132 

132 

Teale Street (Bethnal Green and Shoreditch), 1931 ... 

4-58 

843 1 

727 

West Ferry Road (Poplar), 1931 

4-61 

876 

376 

Drummond Crescent (St. Pancras), 1931 

•73 

235 

282 (a) 

Hard Street (Southwark), 1931 

2-06 

880 

789 

Sidney Street (St. Pancras), 1931 

1-84 

747 1 

371 (a) 

Ellen Street (Stepney), 1932 

•56 

277 

277 

Hope Street (Islington), 1932 

1-49 

394 

387 

Bronze Street (Deptford), 1933 

2-86 

825 i 

825 

Speedwell Street (Deptford), 1938 

2-65 

563 

563 

Northwold Road North (Hackney), 1938 

•92 

135 1 

135 

Drysdale Street (Shoreditch), 1933 

2-10 

517 j 

517 

Thames Street (Greenwich), 1933 

3-63 

732 

732 

Bate Place (Deptford), 1933 

*53 

181 i 

131 

Litcham Street (St. Pancras), 1933 

•77 

404 i 

117 ( a ) 

Ranwell Street (Poplar), 1933 

1-43 ! 

217 i 

217 

Nag’s Head Fields (Bethnal Green), 1938 

3-39 ! 

903 ! 

206 (a) 

Ethelm Street (Lambeth), 1938 

2-46 ! 

632 ! 

618 

George Row (Bermondsey), 1933 

1-84 I 

114 { 

114 

For footnotes t see page 266, 






264 


HOUSING 


. - — - 

— 

— 


j N umber of persona of the 





1 working classes 

Olearanue Schemes and dates of declaration 



acres 

Displaced 

Provided for 





or to be 

up to 





displaced 

30th Sept. ’86 

Areas dealt with by the L.C.C. under imAct, declared up to 1 




Slst December, iQ'Mi— continued. 






Northwold Road Soutli (Hackney), 1933 



2-93 

341 

341 

Park Place (Lambeth), l!)3a 



•78 

85 

85 

Tanswell Street (Lambeth), 1933 

• * • 

... 1 

4-00 

1,4J8 

J ,u89 (b) 

Walev Street (Stepney), 11)33 



•78 

268 

233 (b) 

Northampton Road (Finsbury), 1934 ... 



l*(i8 

405 

403 (a) 

Wilcove Place (St. Marylebone), 1934 



•50 

269 

269 ( 0 ) 

Tycrs Street (Lambeth), 1934 



8-08 

2,407 

2,383 (b) 

Janet Street (Poplar), 1934 



•40 

91 

91 (a) 

Levant Street (Camberwell), 1934 



5-89 

908 

952 (6) 

Didcot Street (Battersea), 1934 



1-48 

341 

328 {b) 

Pott Street (Bethnal Green), 1934 



2-63 

709 

076 

Crescent Avenue (Islington), 1934 



•42 

108 

168 

Shepherd Street Buildings (Stepney), 1934 



•11 

85 

85 

Tarn Street (Southwark), 1934 



4-94 

1,402 

1,375 

Golden Place (Southwark), 1934 



•81 

149 

139 

Hollybush Gardens (Bethnal Green), 1934 



•35 

115 

115 

Quaker Street (Stepnev), 1934 



•85 

208 

200 

Nigel Buildings (Camberwell), 1934 ... 



•64 

257 

257 

Bastwick Street (Finsbury), 1934 



•60 

383 

383 (b) 

Orchard Place (Poplar), 1934-5 



1-52 

458 

458 

Vittoria Street (Islinrton), 1934 



5 00 

1,498 

1,348 

Duncan Square (Hackney), 1934 



107 

444 

444 

Haggerston Road (Shoreditch), 1984 ... 



4 •79 

1,118 

719 

Oakford Place (Shoreditch), 1934 



104 

174 

116 

Bloomfield Place (Lambeth), 1934 



•54 

78 

78 

Prince’s Buildings (Lambeth), 1934 ... 



•37 

140 

140 (6) 

Totness Cottages (Poplar), 1934 



•12 

39 

39 

Lucas Place (St. Pancras), 1934 



•15 

42 

42 

Melton Mews (St. Pancras), 1934 



•22 

59 

59 

Seymour Row (St. Pancras), 1934 



•21 

41 

41 

Speedy Place (St. Pancras), 1934 



•04 

10 1 

10 

Stanhope Buildings (St. Pancras), 1934 


... 1 

•28 

224 

224 

Eastney Street (Greenwich), 1934 



208 

440 

194 

Ada Place and Pritchard’s Hoad (Bethnal Green and j 




Shoreditch), 1934 


... 1 

201 

368 

285 

Whitgift Street (Lambeth), 1934 



134 

236 

236 (6) 

Delta Street (Bethnal Green), 1934 ... 



•97 

95 

45 

Minto Street (Bermondsey), 1934 


... 1 

1-25 

277 

277 

Nile Street (Shoreditch), 1934 


... , 

3-98 

1,819 

1,091 

Richmond Street (St. Marylebone), 1934 


... ! 

101 

849 

36 

Key worth Street (Southwark), 1934 ... 



•63 

164 

136 

King and Queen Street (Southwark), 1934 


... 

4-25 

818 

051 

Eamont Street (St. Marylebone), 1934 



•50 

145 

145 (b) 

Henry Place (St. Marylebone), 1934 ... 


... i 

•31 

97 

97 (6) 

Providence Place (St, Marylebone), 1934 


i 

•40 

122 

122 (6) 

Evans Cottages (Lambeth), 1934 


... 

•56 

95 

55 

Mary Ann Buildings (Deptford), 1934 



•88 

87 

87 

North Wharf Road (Paddington), 1934 



119 

385 

179 

Perring Street (Poplar), 1934 



2-70 

561 

124 

Sophia Street (Poplar), 1934 



5-25 

1,465 

770 

Coldharbour (Poplar), 1935 



•83 

55 

55 

Norfolk Row (Lambeth), 1935 



•16 

62 

62 (a) 

Plume^ Place (Greenwich), 1985 


... j 

■38 

78 

78 

Ayliffe Street (Southwark), 1985 


... i 

3-98 

784 

151 (b) 

Chalton Street (St. Pancras), 1985 


... 1 

•91 

272 

226 

Gaselee Street (Poplar), 1985 


... i 

1-18 

851 

851 (b) 

Lith^w Street (Battersea), 1985 


... i 

•22 

97 

97 (b) 

NorHi Avenue (Islington), 1985 


1 

... j 

1-14 

376 

809 

For footnotes, see page 2660 


APPENDIX 


265 


Clearance Schemes and dates of declaration 

Area in 
acres 

Number of persons of the 
working classes 

Displaced 
or to be 
displaced 

Provided for 

1 up to 

j 30th Sept, ’86 

Areas dealt with by the L.C.C. under 1930 Act, declared up to 
31i< December, continued. 

Pearsons Place (Lambeth), 1935 

•46 

108 

32 

Rill Street (Camberwell), 1935 

1-60 

262 

88 

Shadwell Place (Stepney), 1935 

3*45 

1,172 

232 

Warburton Square (Hackney), 1935 

2-68 

797 

60 

Bvron Street (St. Marylebone), 1935 

•34 

112 

59 

High Street, Bromley (Poplar), 1935 

•81 

134 

62 

Little Grove Street (St. Marylebone), 1935 

•23 

69 

— 

Vine Cottages (St. Marylebone), 1935 

•03 

17 


Lamb Lane Extension (Greenwich), 1935 

•25 

125 

114 

Tinworth Street (Lambeth), 1935 

3*59 

480 

no 

High Hill Ferry (Hackney), 1935 

4*64 

604 

128 

Cuba Street (Poplar), 1935 

1-40 

367 

317 

Sparta Street (Lewisham and Greenwich), 1935 ^ ... 

4-57 

720 

— 

Broadway (Hackney), 1935 

4-91 

965 

— 

Colwyn Street (Lambeth), 1935 

2-27 

645 

46 

Frankham Street (Deptford), 1935 

2-88 

929 

47 

Morning Lane (Hackney), 1935 

2-98 

570 

30 

N(!wburn Street (Lambeth), 1935 

7-79 

1,510 

323 

Savona Street (Battersea), 1935 

4-37 

834 

12 

Vesey Street (Poplar), 1935 

104 

296 

3 

Amias Place (Finsbury), 1935 

-.56 

158 

158 

Dock Cottages (Poplar), 1935 

2-70 

465 

187 

Garden Street (Camberwell), 1935 

•17 

83 



Haddo Street (Greenwich), 1935 

314 

515 

512 (b) 

Harrow Street (St. Marylebone), 1935 

2-71 

1,075 



Herring Street (Camberwell), 1935 

1-16 

166 

— 

Sumner Road (Camberwell), 1935 

9*72 

1,198 

828 

Chicksand Street (Stepney), 1935 

304 

746 

180 

Dorset Road (Lambeth), *1935 

7-36 

1,153 

124 

Distin Street (Lambeth), 1935 

•42 

97 

— 

Ethelred Street (Lambeth), 1935 

•10 

10 

— 

Over Place (Lambeth), 1935 

•28 

101 

— 

Pedley Street (Bethnal Green), 1935 j 

1-64 

310 

— 

Reedworth Street (Lambeth), 1935 ! 

! -25 

86 

— 

Saunders Street (Lambeth), 1935 

•37 

81 

— 

Addey Street (Deptford), 1935 

i 4-47 i 

912 

— 

Pennington Street (Stepney), 1935 

5-68 1 

992 

217 

Sheepcote Lane (Battersea), 1936 1 

1 1-72 

349 

— 

Spring Gardens Place (Poplar), 1986 ! 

•15 i 

25 

— 

Orb Street (Southwark), 1936 

Waley Street No. 2 (Stepney), 1936 

4-29 

844 

14 

•21 

49 

— 

Hurlock Street (Islington), i936 

3-92 

500 

1 34 

Bow Road (Poplar), 1986 

•68 

101 

4 

Burdett Street (Lambeth), 1936 1 

•37 

122 

— 

Parkdale Road (Woolwich), 1936 j 

•20 

22 

— 

Morecambe Street (Southwark), 1986 ... ! 

•48 

72 

— 

Barnfleld Road (Woolwich), 1936 | 

6-04 

551 

— 

Lant Street (Southwark), 1936 j 

1-78 

434 

— 

Redcross Street (Southwark), 1936 i 

1^91 

320 

— 

St. Margaret’s Court (Southwark), 1986 ! 

-.50 

255 

— 

Warner Street (Holborn), 1986 j 

•84 

89 

— 

Waxwell Terrace (Lambeth), 1936 i 

•50 

386 

— 

Darling Row (Bethnal Green), 1986 

4^14 

981 

— 

Law Street (Southwark), 1936 

2-26 

681 

526 

Friar Street (Southwark), 1936 

•10 

17 

— 

Mendip Road (Battersea), 1936 

1-71 

205 

— 

Paragon Alley (Bermondsey), 1986 

•44 

104 i 

27 


For footnotes, stspoffe 26'6, 


HOUSING 




Number of persons of tiie 
working classes 

Clearance Schemes and dates of declaration 

acres 

Displaced 
or to be 
displaced 

Provided lor 
up to 

30th Sept, ’36 

Areas dealt with hy the L,C.C. under 1980 Act, declared up to 
Decenwer, 1QS6- -continued. 

Kilburn Vale (Hampstead), 1936 

2-48 

249 


Surrey Row (Southwark), 1936 

•78 

270 

— 

Devas Street (Poplar), 1986 

Loampit Vale (Lewisnam), 1936 

11*80 

2,164 

68 

•79 

83 

— 

Rope Yard Rails (Woolwich), 1936 

Baker's Row (Finsbury), 1936 

3-48 

1,017 

— 

2*55 

672 

— 

Peartree Street (Lambeth), 1936 

•07 

15 

— 

Coach and Horses Passage (Islington), 1036 

5-59 

810 

— 

Thames Street North (Greenwich), 1936 

4-10 

891 

4 

Gee Street (Finsbury), 1936 

•99 

497 

— 

Murphy Street (Lambeth), 1936 

Juniper Place (Camberwell), 1936 

2-75 

891 

— 

1-78 

212 

— 

Oxley Street (Bermondsey), 1936 

2*74 

423 

— 

Tanners Hill (Deptford), 1936 

2-93 

! 420 

— 

Chapel Yard (St. Pancras), 1936 

•71 ! 

108 

— 

James Street (Bethnal Green & Stepney), 1936 

2-65 1 

402 

— 

Malay Street (Stepney), 1936 

2-76 

737 

— 

Total L.C.C. Clearance Areas under 1930 Act 

305-45 

67,147 

31,418 (b) 

Total — Post-war 1 

404-18 

i 

95,183 

5T.708 (b) 

Grand Total — Pre-war and Post-war ... | 

501 -40 

140,621 

104,026 (b) 


(а) Wholly provided for by Housing Companies, Public Utility Societies, Metropolitan Borough Councils, etc. 

(б) Partly provided for by Housing Companies, Public Utility Societies, Metropolitan Borough Councils, etc. 
(c) In this case the number of persons for whom rehousing accommodation had to be provided was less than the 

number of persons displaced. 


Weekly gross rent of dwellings containing the undermentioned number of 


APPENDIX 


267 


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INDEX 


PAGE 


Ada-place and Pritchard’s-road 
(Bethnal Green and Shore- 
ditch) 258, 264 

Addey-street (Deptford) 258, 265 

Allotment of accommodation . . 224 

Amias-plaqe, Finsbury 259, 265 

Andover estate, Islington . . 259 

Appointed days — overcrowding S7 

Aubrey Trust 205 

Ayliffe-street (Southwark), 1935 
area . . . . . . 23, 264 

Baker’s-alley, etc. (Poplar), 1924 
clearance scheme . . . . 263 

Baker’s-row (Finsbury), 1936 
clearance scheme . . . . 266 

Baker’s-row and Warner-street, 
Finsbury and Holborn . . 259 

Banbury-road, Hackney . . 259 

Barnfield-road, Woolwich 259, 265 

Barnsbury estate, Islington . . 259 

Bastwick-street (Finsbury), 1934 
clearance scheme . . . , 264 

Bate-place (Deptford), 1933 
clearance scheme . . . , 263 

Battersea Metropolitan Borough 

Council 196 

Becontree 154 

Bellingham, Lewisham . . 143 

Bell-lane (Stepney), 1923 clear- 
ance scheme 263 

Bermondsey Metropolitan 
Borough Council . . . . 192 

Bethnal Green, redevelopment 

area 27 

Betts-street, Stepney . . . . 259 

Birchheld-house, Poplar . . 259 

Block dwellings . . . . 38 

Bloomfield - place (Lambeth), 

1934 clearance scheme . . 264 

Blue Anchor-lane and Basing- 
place (Camberwell), 1927 
clearance scheme . . . . 263 

Bostock-street, Islington . . 259 

Bow-bridge estate. Poplar . . 259 

Bow-road (Poplar), 1936 clear- 
ance scheme 265 


PAGE 


Brady-street (Bethnal Green) 
clearance scheme, 1922 . . 263 

Broadway, Hackney . . 259, 265 

Bromley High-street (Poplar), 

1935 clearance scheme . . 265 

Bronze-street (Deptford), 1933 
clearance scheme . . . . 263 

Browning estate, Southwark . . 259 

Broxholrne House, Fulham . . 259 

Burdett-street (Lambeth), 1936 
clearance scheme . . , . 265 

Bush Green House, Hammer- 
smith 259 

Byron-street (St. Marylebone), 

1935 clearance scheme . , 265 

Calverley House, Stepney . . 259 

Capital expenditure on housing 12, 242 
Carlisle-street (St. Marylebone), 

1 928 clearance scheme . . 263 

Castelnaii estate, Barnes . . 150 

Chalton-street (St. Pancras), 

1935 clearance scheme . . 264 

Chapel-yard (St. Pancras), 1936 

clearance scheme . . . . 266 

Chicksand- street. Stepney 259, 265 

Chigwell estate 258 

China-walk estate, Lambeth . . 56 

Chingford estate . . . . 258 

Church Army Housing Limited 207 

Church-street, Stoke Newington 259 

City of London Corporation . . 180 

Clapham Park estate, Wands- 
worth 86 

Clarendon-street area, Padding- 
ton 10 

Coach and Horses passage (Is- 
lington), 1926 clearance 

scheme 266 

Coldharbour (Poplar), 1935 

clearance scheme . . . . 264 

Collingwood estate, Bethnal 
Green 259 

Colwyn-street, Lambeth 259, 265 
Comber estate, Camberwell . . 61 

Community associations . . 227 


268 



PAGE 

Cost of sites in central areas . . 236 

Cottage estates — cost of trans- 
port from 248 

Cottage estates 117 

Coventry Cross estate, Poplar. . 94 

Cowley estate, Lambeth . . 259 

Crescent-avenue (Islington), 

1934 clearance scheme . . 264 

Crescent-street area, Kensing- 
ton 10 

Crossfield estate, Deptford . . 259 

Cuba-street (Poplar), 1935 clear- 
ance scheme . . . . . . 265 

Darling-row, Bethnal Green 259, 265 

Delta-street (Bethnal Green), 

1934 clearance scheme . . 264 

Deptford Park estate, Deptford 259 

Devas-street, Poplar . . 259, 266 

Dickens-estate, Bermondsey . . 259 

Didcot-street (Battersea), 1934 
clearance scheme . . . . 264 

Dinrnont estate, Bethnal Green 259 

Distin-street (Lambeth), 1935 

clearance scheme . . . . 265 

Dock cottages, Poplar . . 259, 265 

Dorset-road, Lambeth . . 259, 265 

Downham, Lewisham and Brom- 
ley 147 

Downs estate, Hackney . . 259 

Drummond-crescent (St. Pan- 

cras),1931 clearance scheme 1931 263 

Drysdale estate,* Hackney 259, 263 
Duchy of Cornwall . . . . 216 

Duncan-square (Hackney), 1934 
clearance scheme, 1934 . . 264 

Duncan-square, Hackney . . 259 

Kamont-street (St. Marylebone), 

1934 clearance scheme . . 264 

I^ast Dulwich estate, Camber- 
well 89 

East-hill estate, Wandsworth . . 69 

Eastney-street, Greenwich 259, 264 

Ecclesiastical Commissioners . . 213 

Ellen-street, Stepney . . 259, 263 

Ethelm-street (Lambeth), 1933 
clearance scheme . . . . 263 

Ethelred-street (Lambeth), 1935 
clearance scheme . . . . 265 

Evans-cottages, Lambeth 259, 264 


PAGE 

Finance 231 

Four Per Cent. Industrial 
Dwellings Company Limited 213 


Frankham-street, Deptford 

259, 265 

Friar-street ( Southwark) , 

1936 

clearance scheme 

.. 265 

Friary estate, Camberwell 

. . 259 

Garden-street, Camberwell 

259, 265 

Gardens, greens, etc. . . 

. . 228 

Garford-street, Poplar 

259 

Gascoyne-road, Hackney 

. . 259 

Gaselee-strcct, Poplar . . 

259, 264 

Gee - street (Finsbury), 

1936 

clearance scheme 

266 

George-row (Bermondsey), 1933 

clearance scheme 

.. 263 

George’s-road and Brand-street 

(Islington), 1925 clearance 

schenfe 

.. 263 

Glebe estate. Poplar . . 

. . 259 

Glebe-place, Stoke Newington 259 

Golden-place (Southwark), 1934 

Clearance Order . . 

. . 264 

Guinness Trust . . 

. . 202 

Hackney Marsh site 

.. 114 

Hacknej^ Metropolitan Borough 

Council 

.. 197 

Haddo- street, Greenwich 

259, 265 


Haggerston estate, Shoreditch 259 

Haggerston-road (Shoreditch), 

1934 clearance scheme . . 264 

Hammersmith Metropolitan 
Borough Council . . . . 189 

Hanbury-street, Stepney . . 259 

Hanwell estate, Ealing . . 176 

Hard-street (Southwark), 1931 
clearance scheme . . . . 263 

Harrow-street, St. Marylebone 259, 265 

Hatfield-street, China-walk and 
Wyndham-road, etc., clear- 
ance scheme, 1927 . . . . 263 

Headstone-lane estate . . . . 258 

Henry-place (St. Marylebone), 

1934 clearance order . . 264 

Herring-street, Camberwell 260, 265 

Hickmans Folly (Bermondsey) 
clearance scheme . . . . 263 

High Hill Ferry, Hackney 260, 265 

Hilldrop-road, Islington . . 260 

Holland estate, Stepney . . 260 


269 



PAGE 


PAGE 


Hollybush-gardens (Bethnal 
Green), 1934 . . . . 260, 264 

Honor Oak estate, Deptford 
Lewisham . . . . . . 91 

Hope-street (Islington), 1932 
clearance scheme . . . . 263 

Hornsey-rise estate, Islington. . 260 

Housing Acts — 

1890 2 

1919 6 

1923 6 

1924 6 

1925 6 

1930 6 

1935 7 

1936 7, 251 

Housing Associations . . . . 200 

Loans to . . . . . . 241 

Hughes-fields estate, Deptford 
and Greenwich . . . . 74 

Hurlock-street, Islington 260, 265 

Improved Industrial Dwellings 
Company Limited . . . . 212 

Improvement areas , . . . 10 

James-street (Bethnal Green 
and Stepney), 1936 clearance 
scheme 266 

Janet-street (Poplar), 1934 clear- 
ance scheme . . . . . . 264 

Juniper-place (Camberwell), 

1936 clearance scheme . . 266 

Kenmore Park estate, Harrow 178 

Kennings estate, Lambeth . . 260 

Kennington Park estate, Lam- 
beth . . 96 

Kensington Housing Trust 
Limited 212 

Keyworth-street (Southwark), 

1934 clearance scheme . . 264 

Kilburn-vale, Hampstead 200, 266 

King and Queen-street (South- 
wark), 1934 clearance scheme 264 

Kingshold estate, Hackney . . 260 

King’s Mead estate (Hackney 
Marsh site) 114 


Lamb-lane extension (Green- 
wich), 1935 clearance scheme 265 
Lant-street (Southwark) 260, 265 


Law-street (Southwark), 1936 
clearance scheme . . . . 265 

Letting and management of 

Council’s dwellings . . . . 219 

Letting or allotment of accom- 
modation . . . . . . 224 

Levant-street (Camberwell), 

1934 clearance scheme . . 264 

Lewis Trust . . . . . . 204 

Licensed premises on cottage 
estates . . . . . . 226 

Lilestone estate, St. Marylebone 260 
Lilford-road, Lambeth . . 260 

Litcham- street (St. Pancras), 

1933 clearance scheme . . 263 

Lithgow- street (Battersea), 

1935 clearance scheme . . 264 

Little Grove-street (St. Mary- 
lebone), 1935 clearance scheme 265 
Loampit-valc (Lewisham), 1936 

clearance scheme . . . . 266 

Loans to private persons and 

builders . . . . . . 241 

Loraine estate, Islington . . 260 

Loughborough estate, Lambeth 260 

Jaicas-place (St. Pancras), 1934 
clearance scheme . . . . 264 

Macauley- square, Wandsworth 260 

Malay-street (Stepney), 1936 
clearance scheme . . . . 266 

Mary Ann buildings (Deptford), 

1934 clearance scheme . . 264 

Melton-mews (St. Pancras), 1934 

clearance scheme *. . . . 264 

Mendip-road (Battersea), 1936 
clearance scheme . . . . 265 

Meridian estate, Greenwich . . 260 

Metropolitan Association for 
Improving the Dwellings of 
the Industrious Classes . . 205 

Metropolitan Board of Works . . 2, 263 
Metropolitan Borough Councils — 

Housing . . . . . . 184 

Accommodation provided . 187 

Slum clearance . . . . 189 

Financial arrangements with 

239, 241 

Millwall estate, Poplar . . 260 

Minto-street (Bermondsey), 1934 
clearance scheme . . . . 264 

Morecambe-street ( Southwark) , 

1936 clearance scheme . . 265 

Morning-lane, Hackney 260, 265 


270 



PAGE 

Mottingham estate, Chislehurst 

and Sidcup, etc. . . 11, 175 

Murphy-street (Lambeth), 1936 

clearance scheme . . . . 266 

Nag’s Head - fields (Betlmal 

Green), 1933 clearance scheme 263 

Newburn-street, Lambeth 260, 265 

Nigel-buildings (Camberwell), 

1934 clearance scheme . . 264 

Nile-street (Shoreditch), 1934 

clearance scheme . . . . 264 

Norbury estate . . . . 5, 7, 130 

Norfolk-row (I.ambeth), 1935 

clearance scheme . . . . 264 

North-avenue, Islington 260, 264 

Northampton-road (Finsbury), 

1934 clearance scheme . . 264 

Northampton-street estate, Is- 
lington . . . . . . 260 

North Wharf-road (Paddington), 

1934 clearance scheme . . 264 

Northwold-road clearance 

scheme . . . . 263, 264 

estate . . . . . . 260 

Oakford-place (Shoreditch), 1934 

clearance scheme . , . . 264 

Oaklands estate, Wandsworth 98 

Oban House, Poplar , . . . 260 

Old Oak estate, Hammersmith 

and Acton . . . . 5, 7, 135 

Oliver-court (Poplar), 1930 

clearance scheme . . . . 263 

Oliver Goldsmith estate, Cam- 
berwell . . . . . . 260 

Orb-street, Southwark 260, 265 

Orchard-place (Poplar), 1934-5 

clearance scheme . . . . 264 

Ossulston estate, St, Pancras 

80, 260, 263 

Overcrowding . . . . . . 30 

— appointed days . . 37 

Over - place (Lambeth), 1935 

clearance scheme . . . . 265 

Oxley-street (Bermondsey), 1936 
clearance scheme . . . . 266 

Paragon-alley (Bermondsey), 

1936 clearance scheme . . 265 

Parkdale-road (Woolwich), 1936 

clearance scheme . . . . 265 

Park-place (Lambeth), 1933 
clearance scheme . . . . 264 

Peabody Trust . . . . . . 201 


PAGE 

Pearsons-place, Lambeth 260, 265 
Peartree-street (Lambeth), 1936 

clearance scheme . . . . 266 

Peckham-rye, Camberwell . . 260 

Pedley-street, Bethnal Green 260, 265 
Pembury-road, Hackney . . 260 

Pennington-street, Stepney 260, 265 

Perring estate, Poplar . . 260, 264 

Plume-place (Greenwich), 1935 

clearance scheme . . . . 264 

Population in Council’s dwel- 
lings . . . . . . . . 219 

Pott-street, Bethnal Green 260, 264 

Poynders-road, Wandsworth . . 260 

Prince’s - buildings (Lambeth), 

1 934 clearance scheme . . 264 

Private enterprise — assistance 
to 240, 241 

Providcpce-place (St. Maryle- 

bone), 1934 clearance scheme 264 

Provost estate, Shoreditch . . 260 

Prusom-street (Stepney), 1934 

clearance scheme . . . . 263 

Quaker-street, Stepney 260, 264 

Ranwell-close, Poplar . . . . 260 

Ranwell-street (Poplar), 1933 

clearance scheme . . . . 263 

Redcross-street, Southwark 260, 265 

Re-development areas . . . . 2(5 

Reedw^orth-street (Lanibeth), 

1935 clearance scheme . . 265 

Rent roll of Council’s dwellings 219 

Rents 220, 267 

Repairs to Council’s dwellings 225 

Richmond-street, St. Maryle- 

bone . . . . . . 260, 264 

Rill-street, Camberwell 260, 265 

Ring Cross, Islington . . . . 260 

Rockingham estate (Tarn-street 
and Ayliffe- street areas and 
Rockingham - street site), 
Southwark . . . . 23, 102 

Roehampton estate, Wands- 
worth . . . . . . • • Ifill 

Ropeyard - rails (Woolwich), 

1936 clearance scheme . . 266 

St. Helier estate, Merton and 
Morden, etc. . . . . • • 

St. Katharine’s estate . . . . 260 

St. Margaret’s-court (South- 
wark), 1936 clearance scheme 265 


271 



PAGE 


PAGE 

203 


St. Pancras House Improve- 
ment Society Limited . . 209 

St. Pancras Metropolitan 
Borough Council . . . . 197 

Samuel Lewis Trust . . . . 204 

Saunders-street (Lambeth), 1 935 

clearance scheme . . . . 265 

Savona-street, Battersea 260, 265 

Season ticket rates . . . . 246 

Seymour-row (St. Pancras), 1934 

clearance scheme . . . . 264 

Shadwcll-place, Stepney 261, 265 

Sheepcote-lane (Battersea), 1936 

clearance scheme . . . . 265 

Shepherd-street Buildings (Step- 
ney), 1934 clearance scheme 264 

Shipwright estate, Stepney . . 261 

Shore estate, Hackney . . 261 

Shoreditch Metropolitan 

Borough Council . . . . 197 

Sidney-street (St. Pancras), 

1931 clearance scheme . . 263 

Slum clearance . . . . . . 13 


Acceleration from 1933 . . 10 

Work carried out by metro- 
politan borough councils 189 

Society for Improving the Con- 
ditions of the Labouring 
Classes 207 

Sophia-street, Poplar . . 261 , 264 

Southam-street (Nos. 1 and 2) 

areas, Kensington .. . . 10 

Sparta-street, Greenwich and 
Lewisham . . . . 261 , 265 

Speedwell estate, Deptford 261, 263 

Speedy-place (St. Pancras), 1934 
clearance scheme . . . . 264 

Spring-gardens-place (Poplar), 

1936 clearance scheme . . 265 

Stamford-hill estate, Hackney 261 

Stanhope-buildings (St. Pancras), 

1934 clearance scheme . . 264 

Stockwell-gardens estate, Lam- 
beth 261 

Streatham-hill estate, Wands- 
worth . . . . . . . . 261 

Subsidies 232 

Sumner-road area, Camberwell 109, 265 

Surrey-row (Southwark), 1936 
clearance scheme . . . . 266 


Sutton Dwellings Trust 

Tabard-street and Grotto-place 
areas. {See Tabard-garden 
estate.) 

Tabard Garden estate (Ber- 
mondsey and Southwark 

4, 7, 49, 261 

Tabard-street, etc. (Southwark 
and Bermondsey), 1910 clear- 
ance scheme . . . . . . 263 

Tanners-hill (Deptford), 1936 

clearance scheme . . . . 266 

Tanswell-street, Lambeth 261, 264 

Tarn-street area, Southwark 

23, 102, 264 

Teale-street (Bethnal Green and 
Shoreditch), 1931 clearance 
scheme . . . . . . 263 

Thames - street (Greenwich), 

1933 clearance scheme . . 263 

Thames-street North (Green- 
wich), 1936 clearance scheme 266 

Thornhill estate, Greenwich . . 175 

Tin worth- street, Lambeth 261, 265 

Totness cottages (Poplar), 1934 
clearance sclierne . . . . 264 

Totterdown-hclds c^state .. 5,130 

Tramways and trolley buses . . 247 

Transport . . . . . . 243 

Travelling facilities . . . . 243 

Proposed improvements in 247 

Treverton-street area, Kensing- 
ton . . . . . . . . 10 

Tufnell Park-road, Islington , . 261 

Tulse-hill site, Lambeth . . 113 

Tyers-street (Lambeth) clearance 
scheme . . . . . . 264 

Type plans . . . . 39, 117 

Vauxhall-gardens estate, Lam- 
beth .. .. ..261 

Vesey-street (Poplar), 1935 clear- 
ance scheme . . . . . . 265 

Vine-cottages (St. Marylebone), 

1935 clearance scheme . . 265 

Vittoria-street (Islington), 1934 

clearance scheme . . . . 264 

Waley-street (Stepney), 1936 

clearance scheme . . 264, 265 

Wandsworth Metropolitan 

Borough Council . . . . 197 


272 



PAGE 

Wandsworth-road site, Wands- 
worth . , . . . . 109 

Wapping estate, Stepney . . 261 

Warburton-square, Hackney 261, 265 

Ware-street (Shoreditch), 1922 

clearance scheme . . . . 263 

Ware-street area . . . . 66 

Warner-street (Holborn), 1936 

clearance scheme . . . . 265 

Watergate-street (Depttbrd and 
Greenwich), 1926 clearance 

scheme . . . . . . 263 

Watling estate, Hendon 165, 258 

Wax well-terrace (Lambeth), 

1936 clearance scheme . . 265 

Wedmore estate, Islington . . 261 

Wellington estate, Bethnal 

Green . . . . . . . . 261* 

West Ferry estate, Poplar 261, 263 


PAGE 

Whiston House, Shoreditch . . 261 

White City site, Hammersmith 111 

Whitefoot-lane site, Lewisham 

and Bromley . . * . 150 

White Hart-lane estate, Totten- 
ham and Wood Green . . 7, 132 

Whitgift-street, Lambeth 261, 264 

Whitmore estate, Shoreditch . . 66 

Wilcove-place (St, Marylebone), 

1934 clearance scheme . , 264 

Woodberry-down site. Stoke 

Newington . . . . . . 261 

Woolwieh Metropolitan Borough 
Council 191 

Workmen’s fares . . . . 245 

Wormholt estate, Hammersmith 

154, 258 

Wyndham-road area . . . . 61 


273 



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